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  1. OBSERVING Using the sense of hearing, touching, smelling, tasting and seeing to collect information about an object or a phenomenon. A

  2. What is meant by observing ? Observing involves collecting information about objects or phenomenon by using the five senses : Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell

  3. Using the five senses effectively.

  4. Using appropriate instrument(s) to enhance senses for the details.

  5. Why do we need to observe? To compile / gather as much information as possible about objects or phenomena.

  6. How do we observe? • Focus on the objects or phenomena to be studied. • Identify the characteristics. • Compare the objects or phenomena. • Identify changes and sequence of events. • Use appropriate apparatus for more detailed observations.

  7. Emphasis of the Curriculum The curriculum emphasises the integration of knowledge, skills and values through inquiry learning and problem solving. SCIENCE Year 4

  8. Emphasis of the Curriculum Pupils are encouraged to observe, explore, and ask questions. They are guided to design fair tests to help them answer these questions and to link them to simple scientific ideas. Pupils communicate their ideas and findings through writings, drawings, charts and tables or verbally. SCIENCE Year 4

  9. INFERRING Using past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions and make explanations of events. Is it true? It must have rained. WET ROAD A

  10. The Magic Jar • Question 4 • Individual – Numbered Heads Together • Teacher Poses Question • Individual Writes / Draws / Calculates • Heads Together For Discussion • A Number Is Called

  11. You are making inferences when you are ….

  12. Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.

  13. Using information from observations to make reasonable early conclusions.

  14. 2. Making various possible interpretations from single observation.

  15. Making various possible interpretations from single observation.

  16. 3. Able to identify the limitations of inferences.

  17. 4. Testing the accuracy of inferences through additional observations.

  18. 5. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations.

  19. Using inferences as a tool to determine the appropriate additional observations.

  20. Why do we need to infer? • To plan actions or to make a choice. • 2. To analyse the cause and effect of decisions

  21. How do we infer? • Observe the situations or circumstances. • State the reason why the situation or circumstances happens . • Give reasons to your statement(s). • Check if the reasons given are based on opinions or observations from the situations. If based on opinions, state why.

  22. What is meant by making inferences? Making inferences is a process of making early conclusions by relating previous experiences with immediate observations.

  23. The Jet Ball • Predict – Observe – Explain ( POE ) • Lets the pupils predict and give explanation to their prediction • Lets them observe the phenomena • Then they make their inference

  24. PREDICTING • Stating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data. A

  25. You are predicting when you are…. • Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events. • Able to differentiate between prediction and guessing. • Able to determine the outcomes from an action. • Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections.

  26. Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections.

  27. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.

  28. What is meant by predicting? Predicting is a process of forecasting events based on observations and previous experiences or certain pattern of reliable data.

  29. The Water Clock Project • Select roles • Checker : ensures that everybody understands the work in progress • Scout : seeks additional information from other groups • Materials manager : collects all necessary material for the group • Gluer and Cutter : Does the gluing and cutting • Encourager : provides support to members of the group so that they are more enthused about their participation.

  30. The Dart Individual project

  31. Investigating The Straw Flute What factors affect the pitch of the sound ? The length The size The material The colour How does the …….. affect the pitch of the sound ?

  32. Investigating The Straw Flute

  33. Investigating The Bouncing Ball ? What factors affect the height of the bounce ? The height of ball released The size of the ball The material The surface / the floor How does the …….. affect the height of the bounce ?

  34. Investigating The Bouncing Ball ( Advance )

  35. How Does Smoking Effects Our Lungs ? Brainstorm and Roud Table within your groups by contibuting ideas Present your mind map Demonstrate the analogy

  36. The Big Stomach Analogy What teaching technique is suitable here ? Yes ! The POE . Pupils predict what would happen if all the foods and drinks are put in the bag ? Observe the phenomena Explain So, what …. What if……

  37. That’s all for today Last but not least, Please fill in the reflection form And Submit to me Thro’ The youngest member in your group. Thank you