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Critical Reflection. Divergent Cultures. William Kwok  Enoch Ng  Ainsley Hart  Axel Durand-Smet  Mahmoud Abu Hannoud  Martina Nikic. Introduction to cross-cultural analysis Comparative analysis of assigned articles Contribution of other articles Hofstede’s Value Dimensions

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critical reflection

Critical Reflection

Divergent Cultures

William KwokEnochNgAinsley Hart

Axel Durand-SmetMahmoudAbu HannoudMartina Nikic

table of contents

Introduction to cross-cultural analysis

Comparative analysis of assigned articles

Contribution of other articles

Hofstede’s Value Dimensions

Importance of Hofstede’smodel

Improvements of Hofstede’s model

Relation to Factbook – Banking Industry

Table of Contents
introduction to cross cultural analysis
Also known as comparative analysis.
  • Crucial for identifying aspects of human culture.
  • Can aid in understanding of

individual traits.

  • Statistical cross-cultural

comparisons can be used to discover

traits shared between cultures.

Introduction to cross-cultural analysis
contribution of other articles
Importance of Hofstede’s theory and framework: Analysis of ethical policies in firms around the world
  • Improvement of Schwartz’ methods: SVS  PVQ
  • Analysis within a culture: “Pancultural Analysis”
    • Location effect
    • Patterning effect
Contribution of other articles
importance of hofstede s model
Many other theoretical models have been the product of Hofstede’s model.
  • Provided numerous statistical results about culture.
  • Influenced Trompenaars’ model i.e. closeness of collectivism vs. individualism of Hofstede and communitarianism vs. individualism of Trompenaars.
Importance of Hofstede’smodel
relation to factbook banking industry


More risk averse

Score of 93 on Hofstede’s scale.

Higher power distance

Score of 68 on Hofstede’s scale.

  • Relatively risk averse
    • Score of 58 on Hofstede’s scale.
  • Lower power distance
    • Score of 31 on Hofstede’s scale.

What effect will these differing scores have on how the banking sector operates in the different countries?

Relation to Factbook – Banking Industry
A quarter century of Culture’s Consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework by Kirkman, Loweand Gibson (2006)
  • On the Empirical Identification of Dimensions for Cross-Cultural Comparisonsby Leung and Bond (1989)
  • Cultural Values and International Differences in Business Ethicsby Scholtensand Dam (2007)
  • A Theory of Cultural Values and Some Implications For Workby Schwartz (1999)
  • Extending the Cross-Cultural Validity of the Theory of Basic Human Values with a Different Method of Measurementby Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris and Owens (2001)
  • National culture and the values of organizational employees: A dimensional analysis across 43 nationsby Smith, Dugan and Trompenaars(1996)