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The Fossil Record. Chapter 5. objectives. SPI 0807.5.5 Compare fossils found in sedimentary rock to determine their relative age. I can: Compare fossils found in sedimentary rock to determine their relative age. Identify types of fossils.

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objectives
objectives
  • SPI 0807.5.5 Compare fossils found in sedimentary rock to determine their relative age.

I can:

  • Compare fossils found in sedimentary rock to determine their relative age.
  • Identify types of fossils.
  • Explain how fossils are used to interpret the past.
  • Explain the geologic time scale.
geologic history
Geologic History
  • Uniformitarianism: geologic change happen through slow gradual processes.
    • Most geologic change
  • Catastrophism: geologic change occurs suddenly by catastrophes.
    • Asteroid, comets, earthquakes, volcanoes

I can explain how fossils are used to interpret the past.

relative age 77
Relative age (#77)
  • Examines the position within rock layers to estimate the age of an object.
    • Look for key words such as before, after, older, younger
    • Examples:
      • Before the dinosaurs existed
      • Older than my brother
      • After the extinction of the dinosaurs
  • Bottom layers: oldest
  • Top layers: youngest

I can compare fossils found in sedimentary rock to determine their relative age.

absolute age
Absolute age
  • Precisely measures the age of fossils or rocks in years.
    • Examples:
      • 5780 years ago
      • Born in 1900
      • At the beginning of the Triassic period

I can compare fossils found in sedimentary rock to determine their relative age.

types of fossils
Types of Fossils
  • Fossil (#36): Remains or physical evidence of an organism preserved by geologic processes.
  • Fossils in rock: formed when organism dies and quickly covered by sediment.
    • Hard parts of the organism are preserved
    • Soft parts decay

I can identify types of fossils.

types of fossils1
Types of fossils
  • Fossils in amber: entire organisms preserved inside hardened tree sap.
    • Insect gets caught in sticky sap, and then hardens.
    • Some of the best fossils.

I can identify types of fossils.

types of fossils2
Types of fossils
  • Petrification: minerals replace the organism’s tissues.

I can identify types of fossils.

types of fossils3
Types of fossils
  • Fossils in asphalt
    • Thick, sticky pools trap and preserve organisms.
    • The La Brea asphalt deposits in Los Angeles, California have preserved organisms for at least 38,000 years.

I can identify types of fossils.

types of fossils4
Types of fossils
  • Frozen Fossils
    • In 1999, scientists removed a 20,000-year-old woolly mammoth that was frozen in the Siberian tundra.
    • These mammoths became extinct about 10,000 years ago.
    • Because cold temperatures slow down decay, the mammoth was almost perfectly preserved.

I can identify types of fossils.

types of trace fossils
Types of trace fossils

Trace fossils: naturally preserved evidence of animal activity.

  • Tracks
    • Reveal size and speed of an animal.
  • Burrows
    • Preserved shelters.
  • Coprolite
    • Preserved animal dung.

I can identify types of fossils.

types of trace fossils1
Types of trace fossils
  • Molds: a cavity in rock where an organism was buried
    • Sunk in/hole
  • Cast: created when sediment fills a mold and becomes rock.
    • Raised up

I can identify types of fossils.

index fossils
Index fossils
  • Index fossils (#44): fossils of organisms that lived for a relatively short, well-defined geologic time span.
  • Ammonites
    • Marine mollusks similar to modern squid.
    • Lived b/t 230 million and 208 million years ago

I can identify types of fossils.

index fossils1
Index fossils
  • Trilobites
    • Closest living relative is the horseshoe crab
    • Lived about 400 million years ago
    • When scientists find fossils of trilobites anywhere on Earth, they assume the rock layers are also approximately 400 million years old

I can identify types of fossils.

using fossils to interpret the past
Using fossils to interpret the past
  • Gives a rough sketch of the history of life on Earth.
  • Organisms with hard body parts have left more fossils.
  • Organisms that lived in areas that favored fossilization have left more fossils.

I can explain how fossils are used to interpret the past.

using fossils to interpret the past1
Using fossils to interpret the past
  • Show a history of environmental change.
    • Marine fossils found on mountaintops in Canada means that these mountains formed at the bottom of the ocean.
    • Detect the presence of ancient seas
    • Reconstruct ancient coastlines
    • Reconstruct past climates
  • Determine relationships and similarities between fossils

I can explain how fossils are used to interpret the past.

geologic time
Geologic time
  • Earth is about 4.6 billion years old.
  • The Grand Canyon
    • Colorado River has cut/eroded away nearly 2 km deep in some places.
    • Represent almost half, nearly 2 billion years, of Earth’s history.

I can explain the geologic time scale.

geologic time scale
Geologic time scale
  • Geologists divided Earth’s history into a scale with distinct sections of time.
    • Eons: largest division of geologic time
      • Four eons: Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, Phanerozoic
    • Eras: 2nd largest division of geologic time
    • Periods: 3rd largest division of geologic time
    • Epochs: 4th largest division of geologic time

I can explain the geologic time scale.

phanerozoic era
Phanerozoic era
  • Paleozoic Era (Old Life)
    • Marine life flourished, few land animals
    • Land plants appeared
    • By the end of the era, amphibians and reptiles lived on the land.
    • Ended with the largest mass extinction(#33) in history
    • 90% of all species became extinct

I can explain the geologic time scale.

mesozoic era
Mesozoic era
  • Mesozoic Era (Age of Reptiles)
    • Dinosaurs dominated the land
    • Small mammals
    • Birds
    • Ended with a mass extinction
    • 15-20% of all species became extinct
    • Possibly caused by global climate change

I can explain the geologic time scale.

cenozoic era
Cenozoic era
  • Cenozoic era (Age of Mammals)
    • Mammals flourished
    • Adaptations may have helped them survive the extinction of the dinosaurs caused by environmental changes.
      • Regulate internal body temperature
      • Develop young inside the mother

I can explain the geologic time scale.