Understanding the Features of Academic Language . Everyday Language vs. Academic Language: A “Continuum”. Cognitively undemanding. Context embedded. Context reduced. Cognitively demanding. Jim Cummins, 2000. Everyday Language vs. Academic Language: A “Continuum”. Cognitively undemanding.
“Pellicle, microtubules, euglenas”
However, therefore, on the other hand, in addition, also, moreover
Analyze, compare and contrast, predict, investigate, hypothesize, outline etc.
Varies by discipline: Persuasion, analogies, metaphors, interpretation, finding evidence
"Shortly after the United States entered World War II, more than 110,000 people of Japanese Ancestry who were living in the United States were forced to move to guarded camps." Elements of Literature: Grade 6, Holt.
Statements rather than questions
Use of technical and specialized vocabulary
"Euglenas do not have cell walls, but they do have an intricate cell membrane called a pellicle. The pellicle is folded into ribbon-like ridges, each ridge supported by microtubules. The pellicle is tough and flexible, letting euglenas crawl through mud when there is not enough water for them to swim. Euglenas reproduce asexually by binary fission." High School Biology, Miller & Levine. Prentice Hall
Reproduce - reproduction
EXAMPLE: "Some of the region's physical features and landforms experienced (passive voice) violent forms of creation. Creation (nominalization) was followed by periods of rapid growth." The Pacific Northwest: Past, Present & Future. Lambert
Freeman & Freeman, 2009