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Presenter: Margot Downs WIDA Certified Consultant ACCESS for ELLs ® , W-APT™, and ELP Standards Trainer Dec. 13, 2010 Maine Department of Education ESL/Bilingual Programs Professional development online webinar. Understanding Academic Language.

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understanding academic language
Presenter: Margot Downs

WIDA Certified Consultant

ACCESS for ELLs®, W-APT™, and ELP Standards Trainer

Dec. 13, 2010

Maine Department of Education ESL/Bilingual Programs

Professional development online webinar

Understanding Academic Language

© 2009 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium www.wida.us

resources
Resources
  • English Learners, Academic Literacy and Thinking by Pauline Gibbons (2009)
  • Building Academic Language by Jeff Zwiers (2008)
  • Content Area Conversations by Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey, and Carol Rothenberg (2008)
  • WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards
everyday vs academic language gibbons 2009
Everyday vs. Academic Language(Gibbons 2009)
  • A lot of artists at that time painted pictures of everyday life.
  • Magnets attract metal that contain iron.
  • There was no food and many people starved and died.
everyday vs academic language gibbons 20095
Everyday vs. Academic Language(Gibbons 2009)
  • A lot of artists at that time painted pictures of everyday life.
  • Urban scenes were popular among artists of the area.
  • Magnets attract metal that contain iron.
  • Magnetic attraction occurs between magnets and ferrous materials.
  • There was no food and many people starved and died.
  • Famine caused mass starvation.
slide6

Social Language Proficiency

Academic Language Proficiency

Academic Achievement

Gottlieb (2003)

slide7

Academic Language Proficiency

  • Language-based
  • Reflective of the varying stages of second language acquisition
  • Representative of social and academic language contexts
  • Tied to a state’s English language proficiency standards (WIDA)

Academic Achievement

  • Content-based
  • Reflective of conceptual development
  • Representative of the school’s academic curriculum
  • Tied to a state’s academic content standards
register halliday and hasan 1985 and gee 2000
Register (Halliday and Hasan [1985] and Gee [2000])

Field - topic

Tenor - Relationship between speaker and listener or reader and writer

Mode - the channel of communication (spoken or written)

slide9
Using appropriate terminology is integral to the concepts being learned. Understanding concepts isn’t simply a question of learning new vocabulary. Academic literacy means being able to express more concisely and precisely the complex ideas and concepts that are embedded in the context of a subject. (Gibbons 2009)
slide10
Academic language proficiency refers to the abilities to construct meaning from oral and written language, relate complex ideas and information, recognize features of different genres, and use various linguistic strategies to communicate.

Dutro &Moran (2003)

five wida elp standards
Five WIDA ELP Standards

Standard 1 – SIL: English language learners communicate for SOCIAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL purposes within the school setting.

Standard 2 – LoLA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of LANGUAGE ARTS.

Standard 3– LoMA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of MATHEMATICS.

Standard 4– LoSC:English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE.

Standard 5 – LoSS:English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SOCIAL STUDIES.

four language domains
Four Language Domains

Listening ─ process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations

Speaking ─ engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiences

Reading ─process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency

Writing ─ engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences

criteria for performance definitions
Criteria for Performance Definitions

6

REACHING

1

2

3

4

5

BRIDGING

ENTERING

BEGINNING

DEVELOPING

EXPANDING

  • Linguistic Complexity: Expectations of the quantity and organization of the student’s verbal response
  • Vocabulary Usage: Expectations of the student’s use of appropriate vocabulary for grade level and proficiency level; refers to language quality
  • Language Control: Expectations of the student’s control of English grammar, word choice in context, and the English sound system; refers to language quality
linguistic complexity
Linguistic Complexity

(Level 1) What is this? Who is this? What are they doing?

“A cake. A cookie. Baking.”

Expectation: Single words

(Level 2) What is happening in this picture?

“They are cooking. They are making a cake.”

Expectation: Short phrases or sentences

(Level 3) How are cookies and cakes similar/different?

“They are both sweet, but cookies are usually smaller than cakes.”

Expectation: Simple conjoined sentences with descriptors use of cohesion.

vocabulary usage
Vocabulary Usage
  • The Language of Social Studies
    • General Language: people
    • Specific Language: population
    • Technical Language: demographics
  • The Language of Language Arts
    • General Language: person
    • Specific Language: character
    • Technical Language: protagonist
slide18
The navel orange is one of the few remaining staples in the produce bins that remains untouched by globalization.

(New York Times Jan 21,2007 Kim Severson)

The navel orange is one of the few remaining staples in the produce bins that remains untouched by globalization.

slide19
The _______ is one of the few remaining _________ in the ______________that remains untouched by _______________.

The Ginkgo is one of the few remaining trees in the United States that remains untouched by gypsy moths.

slide20
When an animal hibernates, it breathes very slowly, its heart beat slows down, and its body gets colder.(Click Magazine Dec. 2010)

When an animal exercises, it breathes very quickly, its heart beat increases, and its body gets warmer.

what does it mean to be concise and precise
What does it mean to be “Concise and Precise”?

Vocabulary Usage

We want energy that will be there for us when we want it.

Fossil fuels are a resource that will not last forever.

what does it mean to be concise and precise22
What does it mean to be “Concise and Precise”?

Vocabulary Usage

We want energy that will be there for us when we want it.

We want reliable energy sources.

Fossil fuels are a resource that will not last forever.

Fossil fuels are a finite resource.

slide23
Linguistic Complexity

We use large amounts of oil. We will be without oil in 30 to 40 years.

Alternative energy is our best solution. Alternative energy can meet our future energy needs.

slide24
Linguistic Complexity

We use large amounts of oil. We will be without oil in 30 to 40 years.

If we use large amounts of oil, we will be without oil in 30 to 40 years.

Alternative energy is our best solution. Alternative energy can meet our future energy needs.

Alternative energy is our best solution and can meet our future energy needs.

slide25
Language Control

(How well do you control the use of academic English? Does one idea connect to another idea? Do you use the appropriate work in the correct manner?)

  • Using transitions to connect and organize ideas (furthermore, as a result, however)
  • Taking risks with language (good v. nutritious)
  • Correct word forms (significant/significance, contribute/contribution)
slide27
Elements of Model Performance IndicatorsThe Model Performance Indicator (MPI) consists of three elements:

The language function describes how students use language to demonstrate their proficiency

The example topic specifies the context for language instruction, derived from state content standards

The support includes instructional strategies or tools used to assist students in accessing content necessary for communication; can be sensory, graphic, or interactive

slide28

Grade 9-12 Reading Science Level 3

Based on the information from the table, which biome has the widest temperature range?

(A) Tundra (B) Taiga (C) Temperate Forest (D) Tropical Rain Forest

(MPI: Extract information on the use of data presented in text and tables)

slide29

Additional Features of Academic Language

    • Collocations (to commit a crime)
    • Polysemous words: multiple
    • meanings (table)
    • Nominalization/Nominal Groups
slide30
When people clear land for houses and roads they change the environment. They destroy the forest and bush and then many animals lose their homes. More houses and roads will pollute the environment even more. Some animals have become extinct because their homes have been destroyed.
  • Clearing and development of land often results in the destruction of the natural habitat of many local species. It may also increase the level of pollution. Loss of habitat has already led to the extinction of many species of animals.
slide31

The Talking to Writing Continuum (Gibbons 2009)

(1) “Face to Face Interactions”

  • Look, it’s making them move.
  • That’s not going.
  • Those ones are going fast.
slide32

(2) “Oral Retelling”

  • We found out the pins stuck on the magnet and so did the iron filings. Then we tried the pencil but it didn’t stick.
slide33

(3) “Written Summary”

  • Our experiment was to find out what a magnet attracted. We discovered that a magnet attracts some kinds of metal. It attracted the iron filings and the pins, but not the pencil.
slide34

(4) “Academic Text”

  • The magnet is a piece of metal that is surrounded by an invisible field of force which affects any magnetic material within it. It is able to attract a piece of iron or steel because it is magnetic field flows into the metal, turning it into a temporary magnet. Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous materials.
slide35

“Because we are immersed in an ocean of academic language daily, it’s hard to notice the habits we automatically engage in to comprehend such language…When we become aware of our own habits and strategies, we can model them and make them available to our students.” (Jeff Zwiers 2008)

Engaging students in more explicit language production creates a “bridge” between the everyday language and the more abstract and formal language associated with academic literacy.

instructional implications
Instructional Implications
  • Go from the everyday, familiar, and concrete to the subject specific, unfamiliar and abstract
  • Link students’ real world experiences to school experiences
  • Sequence teaching and learning activities to move towards the specialized language of written texts, rather than starting with the written texts
  • Structure classroom discourse and interaction so that it bridges to written texts
increasing interaction to build fluency
Increasing Interaction to Build Fluency
  • Model the language and the interaction
  • Have students process information individually
  • Have students process information in pairs
  • Have students process information in small groups
  • Compare/Contrast information to source (reading)
  • Apply information to a new task (writing)
slide38
Building Background Knowledge

Marzano (2004)

Effective processing of information

depends on …

  • The number of times information is processed
  • The detail that is added
  • The associations that are made with other information
slide47
A flag is a ________.

a) person b) place c) thing

flexibility
Flexibility
  • The ability of joints to move through their full range of motion.
flexibility51
Flexibility
  • The ability of _____ to move through their full range of motion.
flexibility52
Flexibility
  • The ability of _____ to ____ through their full range of motion.
flexibility53
Flexibility
  • The ability of _____ to ____ through their ____ range of motion.
flexibility54
Flexibility
  • The ability of _____ to ____ through their ____ range of _____.
flexibility55
Flexibility
  • ___ ability of _____ to ____ through their ____ range of _____.
flexibility56
Flexibility
  • ___ ability of _____ to ____ through ____ ____ range of _____.
flexibility57
Flexibility
  • ___ ability of _____ to ____ through ____ ____ _____ of _____.
flexibility58
Flexibility
  • ___ _____ of _____ to ____ through ____ ____ _____ of _____.
flexibility59
Flexibility
  • ___ _____ of _____ to ____ _____ ____ ____ _____ of _____.
flexibility60
Flexibility
  • ___ _____ ___ _____ to ____ _____ ____ ____ _____ of _____.
slide62

Language of Science

Language of Mathematics

Language of Language Arts

Language of Music

School General academic language for knowing, thinking, reading, writing and visualizing

Language of Social Studies

Student Learner assets, home and community language, and cultural factors

Researched Based Teaching Strategies and Instructional Activities

Formative and Summative Assessment of English Language Proficiency

Adapted from Jeff Zwiers (2008) and WIDA

slide63
Thank you for your interest in this webinar.

Maine Department of Education

ESL/Bilingual Programs

esl.doe@maine.gov