Lecture 11 Tense and Aspect (I). the simple present the simple past the present progressive the past progressive. 11.1 Uses of Simple Present. Definition:.
the simple present
the simple past
the present progressive
the past progressive
The simple present is the present tense form which is not accompanied by the category of aspect, that is which is not marked for the progressive or the perfective aspect.
1) Timeless present
2) Habitual present
3) Momentary and instantaneous present
4) Referring to the future
5) Referring to the past
Honesty is the best policy.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
London stands on the River Thames.
This use of the simple present mostly applies to Stative Verbs
simple present - used when mentioning:
I usuallywork 9 to 5.He oftenplays golf on Saturday.We alwayseat dinner together.Frequently, we have lunch out.We nevereat breakfast together.
"as long as I can remember" (customs)
A. Momentary present (现时状态）
What’s the matter with you? You look pale.
What do you think, Jane?
A momentary phenomenon that exists at the time of speaking.
the event takes place singly and once-for-all within the moment of speaking.
Used in certain speech situations such as:
a. Commentaries of fast-moving sports:
Harper passes the ball to Jennings; Jennings shoots and the goalkeeper leaps for it but – yes, it’s a goal.
(Conjuror:) Look, I take this card from the pack and place it under the handkerchief-so.
(Demonstrator:) Now I put the cake mixture into this bowl and adda drop of vanilla essence.
c. Some formal declarations:
I declare the meeting open.
arrangement4) Referring to the Future
future events conceived of as “certain”
Three sub clauses:
I hope you have a good time.= I hope you will have a good time.
I’ll make sure you don’t get lost.
=…you won’t get lost.
If it is fine tomorrow, we will go to the countryside
If it willbe fine tomorrow, …
tell, say, hear, learn,write
a. Communication Verbs
to express the present effect of information received in the past
Alice tells me you’re entering college next year.
I hear poor old Mrs. Smith has lost her son.
b. Historic Present:
as a device of story-telling and news reporting
to add vividness to the description
I was just dozing off in front of the television when my wife rushes in shouting that the kitchen is on fire.