chapter 2 the development of computers n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 2 The development of computers PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 2 The development of computers

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 30

Chapter 2 The development of computers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 98 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 2 The development of computers. Learning outcomes Outline the history of computers Explain Von-Neumann Architecture Explain the advantage of using the binary system in computing and not the decimal one. Additional reading. Essential Stallings (2003): Chapter 2.1 Further reading

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 2 The development of computers' - xuxa


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 2 the development of computers
Chapter 2 The development of computers
  • Learning outcomes
    • Outline the history of computers
    • Explain Von-Neumann Architecture
    • Explain the advantage of using the binary system in computing and not the decimal one.

cis110

additional reading
Additional reading
  • Essential
    • Stallings (2003): Chapter 2.1
  • Further reading
    • Brookshear (2003): Chapter 0.2
    • Schneider and Gersting (2004): Chapter 1.4

cis110

lesson plan
Lesson plan
  • Introduction
  • Definition of a computer
  • History of computer machines.
  • Hardware and software
  • Compilers

cis110

introduction
Introduction
  • Modern computers are:
    • Small,
    • Fast,
    • Can do different things
  • To understand how modern computers work
    • It is useful to know their development history
    • How is information represented ?
    • How is information stored?
    • How is information processed?

cis110

what is a computer1
What is a computer?
  • Human who performs calculations
  • Calculating machine
  • General problem solver
  • Machine that performs repeated operations
  • Machine that can be programmed to perform different operations

cis110

navigation problem
Navigation problem
  • Originally, a word computer was assigned to humans who were employed to solve difficult equations such as computing tabulated values that could be used by navigators.
  • Humans implies mistakes.
  • Large fortune can lost.

cis110

a computer is something that does arithmetic sums
A computer is something that does arithmetic sums
  • Charles Babbage (mathematician) realised that a fortune can be saved if the production of these tables can mechanised.
  • There were a limited mechanic machines at that time
    • such as abacus (limited in its precision)
  • A Computer becomes:
    • Something that does arithmetic sums.

cis110

a computer is something that can perform repeated operations
A computer is something that can perform repeated operations.
  • In 1822 C. Babbage proposed:
    • A mechanical calculating device designed to repeatedly add large number.
  • A computer becomes:
    • something that can perform repeated operations without error.

cis110

a computer is machine that can perform different tasks
A computer is machine that can perform different tasks
  • 1833
    • C. Babbage designed a machine that could perform different operations. Order of operation can be changed after.
  • A computer becomes:
    • A machine that can be programmed to perform different tasks.

cis110

first programmer
First programmer?
  • Lady Ada Lovelace
    • She met C. Babbage in 1833
    • She then wrote a program for his machine.
  • She was the world’s first programmer ?
  • More about Ada Lovelace go to http://www.exeter.ac.uk/BABBAGE/ada.html

cis110

origin the word algorithm
Origin the word Algorithm?
  • The idea of a program or algorithm
    • was already known at that time.
    • The idea of Algorithm was introduced by:
      • Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizm (Mathematician) (9th Century)
        • He worked in Baghdad at the time when it was the centre of scientific studies and trade
        • His work introduced Indian numerals and algebraic concepts
          • Father of Algebra
        • The word algorithm comes from the name al-Khwārizm

cis110

abacus machine 1
Abacus machine (1)
  • First computer: Abacus

A rack with a sliding beads.

cis110

abacus machine 2
Abacus machine (2)
  • Emerged about 5,000 years ago in China.
  • Not an automated computer
  • Allows users to perform computations using a system of sliding beads arranged in a rack.
  • Only helps to remember the current state of calculation.

cis110

pascal s system gear blaise pascal 1623 1662
Pascal’s System Gear Blaise Pascal(1623-1662)
  • It was developed by Blaise Pascal in 1642.
    • If is also known as
      • Pascal mechanical calculator
      • Pascaline
      • Pascal’s adder.
    • It is an 8 figure calculating machine
      • adding,
      • subtracting, and
      • carrying 10's, 100's, and 1000's
    • Limitations: addition and subtraction only.

cis110

pascal s system gear

8 movable dials

Pascal’s System Gear
  • Uses a base of 10
  • add sums up 8 figures.
  • When the10’s dial moves one revolution, the 100’s dial moves one notch.

cis110

gottfried von leibniz
Gottfried Von Leibniz
  • Leibniz developed Pascal’s ideas.
  • In 1671, he introduced a new device called Step Reckoner.
  • The device can performs the followings:
    • Addition and subtraction
    • multiplication and division.
    • Evaluation of square roots by series of stepped additions.

cis110

babbage s difference engine charles babbage 1791 1871
Babbage’s Difference Engine Charles Babbage(1791-1871)
  • It could compute tables of numbers for naval navigation, e.g. x2 for any value of x. This machine punched the result into a copper plate.
  • For more information about Babbage’s work go to: http://www.maxmon.com/1830ad.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbage

cis110

electronic numerical integrator and computer eniac
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)
  • (1943-1946) by John Mauchly
  • ENIAC used vacuum tubes for number computation.
    • The switches between the vacuum tubes were able to represent 2 states: ON and OFF.
  • However, programming was done manually.

cis110

slide20

17,468 vacuum tubes

70,000 resistor

6,000 manual switches

30 tones weight

Covers 167 square metres

160 kilowatts of electric power

cis110

von neumann machine
Von Neumann Machine
  • Invented in 1943 by John Von Neumann
  • First machine that could perform all operations electronically.
  • No manual switching between states is needed
  • It consists of :
    • A central processing unit
    • Memory as well as Input/Output devices
    • These were connected through a system bus (set of wires)

cis110

von neumann architecture
Von Neumann architecture

Main

memory

CPU

Add. bus

Data bus

Control bus

cis110

industry standard architecture isa binary system
Industry Standard Architecture ISA & Binary System
  • John von Neumann’s architecture was also referred to as ISA machine
  • The ISA used vacuum tubes that were based on the binary system.
  • The invention of transistors in 1947 (semi-conductor with 2 states) favoured the binary system to the decimal one.

cis110

computers since the 1940 s
Computers since the 1940’s
  • 1st generation (1943-59): Bulky machines using vacuum tubes.
  • 2ndgeneration (1959-65): Transistor-based machines with magnetic core memory, programmed with high level languages (e.g. Fortran or Cobol).
  • 3rd generation (1965-75): Integrated circuits. Operating systems permitting shared use of machines.
  • 4th generation (1975-85): Machines built with large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI), e.g. Microcomputers. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), networks
  • 5th generation (1985-present): Multimedia interfaces, mobile computing, parallel processing. Most of today’s computers also inherit the properties of 4th generation devices.

cis110

hardware and software
Hardware and Software
  • Hardware:
    • the physical components of a machine.
    • Touchable
  • Software:
    • Instructions performed by a computer
    • Sequence of instructions that include
      • Conditional statements
      • Block of statements that are to be repeated

cis110

software terminology
Software Terminology
  • Program:
    • Set of instructions or rules that a computer can apply
    • Software consists of a set of programs
  • Application program:
    • An end-user employs, such word processor, web browser, etc..
  • System programs:
    • Manages the running of applications, such as operating system.
    • Link between the application software and the hardware

cis110

compilers
Compilers
  • Executable/Object Code:
    • It is expressed in machine code.
    • A language the machine hardware can understand
  • Source Code:
    • The text of a program written in high-level language.
  • Compiler:
    • Translates from source code to object code, machine code.

cis110

basic process of compilation

Source code

compiling

Compiler

Executable

Code

Basic Process of Compilation

cis110

files and directories
Files and directories
  • A file is collection of data (e.g. plain text document)
  • Directories:
    • A means of organizing files
    • Usually form a hierarchy
    • Root:
      • is the top directory in the hierarchy
      • (/ Unix and \ in Ms-dos).

cis110

computer component
Computer Component
  • Most computers consist of:
    • Input/output devices: keyboard, mouse
    • Visual display units: screen
    • Graphical user interfaces: display on the screen that allows you to interact, e.g. by pointing, clicking, dragging. Objects that you see on screen, e.g. wastebasket, folders, symbols such as disk, scissors, etc.
    • CPU: processor (e.g. INTEL, ) – made out of silicon
    • Hard-drive (magnetic disk, now more than a Terabyte)
    • RAM (working memory, now more than a Gigabyte)
    • Cards, such as graphic cards, sound cards, Ethernet cards
    • Operating systems, e.g. UNIX, Linux, Windows, etc
    • Programmes (written in assembly language, Java, C, C++, Visual Basic, Python, Perl etc.)

cis110