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  1. Five Things Digital Natives Cannot Do (And What You Can Do To Help) Dan Balzer, Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

  2. Google ‘digital natives’ and the top hit is: http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf Digital Immigrant instructors, who speak an outdated language (that of the pre-digital age), are struggling to teach a population that speaks an entirely new language.

  3. Assessment validation study series conducted since fall 2004 Both Middle & High Schools participating Variety of instructional treatments Instruction and assessment of core 21st Century Information Fluency knowledge and skills Embedded into larger research assignments Our Data Sources

  4. Types of assessment items: knowledge, performance, and cognitive Online micro-module assessments (multiple choice with scoring feedback) Self-diagnostic performance-based assessment (Flash file) Summative performance-based assessment (Live Internet) Our measurement methods

  5. Investigating the practices of student researchers: patterns of use and criteria for use of internet and library sources Computers and Composition, Vol. 17, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 309-328. • Nearly 60% of all college students surveyed have received library training in evaluating traditional resources, which came most frequently from high school teachers • “…about 30% of university students have received training in evaluating sources on the Internet, leaving a surprising two-thirds of students untrained and presumably inventing their own criteria of evaluation.” Evaluating information on the Web: How have college students learned to evaluate Internet information? Source: http://www.citeulike.org/article/4466

  6. Translating a question into a query Choosing the best database Verifying the credibility of information Finding better keywords Recognizing information that’s relevant

  7. 1. Translating a question into a query • Starts with a question or a problem to solve. • Task: Translate a natural language question or statement into language that is understood by a search engine. • Search engines differ in how they process queries, but for the most part, what works on one big commercial search engine tends to work on the others. • Search engines perform a variety of literal matching functions with Boolean and special operators.

  8. 1. Translating a question into a query Which of the following is the most effective query for 'find the top speed of earth's fastest animal'? • speed fastest animal • what is earth’s fastest animal • top speed earth’s fastest animal

  9. Translating a question into a query • Research Findings (IMSA second semester sophomores) • 36% recognized the optimal query from a list of three queries. Only 14% of incoming 9th graders at a local high school identified the optimal query. • 31% grasped that search engines perform literal matching. • 17% regularly use natural language queries. • 12% misinterpreted the research question.

  10. What You Can Do To Help Question to query tutorials

  11. What You Can Do To Help Question to query checklist • How many key concepts (important ideas) are found in the question? • How many key concepts will I search for? • What keywords are probably effective “as is?” • For which concepts are more effective keywords probably needed? • Are there hyponyms or professional language for any of the intermediate words? • Are there words that have multiple meanings? • Did I use any stop words or clutter words? • Did I spell the words correctly? • Did I put the most important words first?

  12. What You Can Do To Help Challenge: What is the top speed of earth’s fastest animal? • How many key concepts (important ideas) are found in the question? • How many key concepts will I search for? • What keywords are probably effective “as is?” • For which concepts are more effective keywords probably needed? • Are there hyponyms or professional language for any of the intermediate words? • Are there words that have multiple meanings? • Did I use any stop words or clutter words? • Did I spell the words correctly? • Did I put the most important words first?

  13. What You Can Do To Help Challenge: How many buffalo are there in North America? • How many key concepts (important ideas) are found in the question? • How many key concepts will I search for? • What keywords are probably effective “as is?” • For which concepts are more effective keywords probably needed? • Are there hyponyms or professional language for any of the intermediate words? • Are there words that have multiple meanings? • Did I use any stop words or clutter words? • Did I spell the words correctly? • Did I put the most important words first?

  14. Choosing the best database

  15. 2. Selecting an adequate database • This failure occurs before submitting the first query. • Task: Predict where expert information may be found. • No search engine performs a live Internet search when you submit a query. (Otherwise, how could they come back with a page that’s not found?) • That which is stored in one search engine’s database is invisible to another search engine (also called Enterprise Data)

  16. 2. Selecting an adequatedatabase Research Findings • When permitted, most students prefer to “Google” (anecdotes from teachers) • A recent poll at the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy revealed that 90% of sophomores google more than half their searches; 32% of the students polled use Google almost exclusively.

  17. What You Can Do To Help Choose the best database • What person would know the answer I am looking for? • Where would I find that expert? • Use Google/Yahoo to get there and then use the proprietary search engine to go farther. • To find a relevant database use keywords like DATABASE, ARCHIVE, INFORMATION in combination with subject matter. • Use Beaucoup.com to search for databases.

  18. What You Can Do To Help Challenge: How many times has Funny Girl been performed on Broadway? • What person would know the answer I am looking for? • Where would I find that expert? • Use Google/Yahoo to get there and then use the proprietary search engine to go farther. • To find a relevant database use keywords like DATABASE, ARCHIVE, INFORMATION in combination with subject matter. • Use Beaucoup.com or Google to search for databases.

  19. What You Can Do To Help Challenge: Classical guitarist John Williams has scored the music for only one motion picture. What is the name of the movie? • What person would know the answer I am looking for? • Where would I find that expert? • Use Google/Yahoo to get there and then use the proprietary search engine to go farther. • To find a relevant database use keywords like DATABASE, ARCHIVE, INFORMATION in combination with subject matter. • Use Beaucoup.com to search for databases.

  20. Recognizing information that’s relevant

  21. 3. Recognizing relevant information • This failure occurs when a student looks at the results returned by a search engine. • Task: Match findings with expectations, evaluate relevance • Information on the Internet is not always found in predictable places. • Computers are made for speed, which encourages haste. • Hyperlinks and graphics can be distracting.

  22. 3. Recognizing relevant information Research Findings (junior honors students) • 36% were able to identify web pages that contain supporting research facts from a selection of three pages.

  23. What You Can Do To Help Recognize relevant information • Practice reading snippets: Soccer Challenge III • Use the FIND Command • Challenge: Find the name of the poem that contains the line to tell just what it knows

  24. Finding better keywords

  25. 4. Finding better keywords • This failure occurs throughout the search process: before the initial query is submitted and as students look at the results returned by a search engine. • Task: Select and try increasingly specific keywords • Frequently, effective keywords go unnoticed in snippets. • Our claim: Effective searching depends on keyword selection more than any other factor.

  26. 4. Finding better keywords Research Findings (high school) • 14% of IMSA sophomores used alternate keywords when searching. • 7% of junior honors students chose effective alternate words to find information.

  27. What You Can Do To Help Find better keywords • Practice with snippets and thesaurus: Soccer Challenge II • Practice with professional vocabulary: Soccer Challenge IV

  28. Verifying the credibility of information

  29. 5. Evaluating credibility • This failure occurs after information has been located. • Task: Check the credibility of information, authorship • Typically, students forego this decision altogether and uncritically accept whatever information they found. • Depending on which database the information was taken from, information may be unedited, unendorsed and inaccurate. • Special operators (link:) makes external evaluation easier.

  30. 5. Evaluating credibility Research Findings High school honors students • 0% were able to use special operators to evaluate the credibility of a web page. College students

  31. Investigating the practices of student researchers: patterns of use and criteria for use of internet and library sources Computers and Composition, Vol. 17, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 309-328. • Access, access, access • “source is easy to understand” (1) • “source is easy to find” (2) • “source is available” (3) • “When students seem to use sources without discrimination, they are probably using what is most accessible… (no real search is required)” Evaluating information on the Web: What makes a source most desirable to college students? Source: http://www.citeulike.org/article/4466

  32. Investigating the practices of student researchers: patterns of use and criteria for use of internet and library sources Computers and Composition, Vol. 17, No. 3. (December 2000), pp. 309-328. • …up-to-date or recently published information (8) • …the use of external support, particularly from primary sources (11) • …the reputation of the publication (5), the author (17), and the publisher (22) Evaluating information on the Web: What makes a source most desirable to college students? Source: http://www.citeulike.org/article/4466

  33. What You Can Do To Help Verify Credibility • External validation of content: Links to this site from other sites • Technique - link: http://www.edutopia.org • Practice using the link: operator Evaluation Challenges

  34. How, When and Where can skills be taught? • Performance skills require hands-on practice • Search challenges • Interactive tutorials • MicroModules (example: FIND COMMAND) • Search Wizard • When and Where can I teach these skills?

  35. keywords: information fluency

  36. Professional Development Events • Webinars • Face-to-Face Workshops • Conference presentations – ISLMA, IETC, IPA, ICE • IMSA full circle resource kit (coming Fall 2006)

  37. Contact Us! • URL http://21cif.imsa.edu • General info 21cif@imsa.edu • Bob Houston rhouston@imsa.edu • Dan Balzer dbalzer@imsa.eduCarl Heine heine@imsa.eduDennis O’Connor doconnor@imsa.eduGautam Saha gsaha@imsa.edu • Thank you for participating!