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Overview of Research Designs. The Marketing Research Process. Figure 1.4 The Marketing Research Process. Step 1: Defining the Problem. Step 2: Developing an Approach to the Problem. Step 3: Formulating a Research Design. Step 4: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data.

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figure 1 4 the marketing research process

The Marketing Research Process

Figure 1.4 The Marketing Research Process

Step 1: Defining the Problem

Step 2: Developing an Approach to the Problem

Step 3: Formulating a Research Design

Step 4: Doing Field Work or Collecting Data

Step 5: Preparing and Analyzing Data

Step 6: Preparing and Presenting the Report

research design
Research Design
  • A master plan that specifies the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing needed information.
figure 3 8 tasks involved in a research design
Figure 3.8 Tasks Involved in a Research Design

Tasks Involved In a Research Design

Define the Information Needed

Design the Exploratory, Descriptive, and/or Causal Phases of the Research

Today’s Topic

Specify the Measurement and Scaling Procedures

Construct a Questionnaire

Specify the Sampling Process and the Sample Size

Develop a Plan of Data Analysis

a classification of market research designs
A Classification of Market Research Designs

Research Design

Exploratory Research

Conclusive Research

Secondary Data

Experience Surveys

Pilot Studies

Case Studies

See next slide

a classification of market research designs1
A Classification of Market Research Designs

Research Design

Exploratory Research

Conclusive Research

See previous slide

Cross-sectional Study

Descriptive Design

Causal Design

Longitudinal Study


Secondary Data Study



exploratory research
Exploratory Research
  • Usually conducted during the initial stage of the research process
  • Purposes
    • To narrow the scope of the research topic, and
    • To transform ambiguous problems into well-defined ones
exploratory research techniques
Exploratory Research Techniques
  • Secondary Data Analysis
    • Secondary data are data previously collected & assembled for some project other than the one at hand
  • Pilot Studies
    • A collective term for any small-scale exploratory research technique that uses sampling but does not apply rigorous standards
    • Includes
      • Focus Group Interviews
        • Unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of people
      • Projective Techniques
        • Indirect means of questioning that enables a respondent to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party or an inanimate object
        • Word association tests, sentence completion tests, role playing
exploratory research techniques1
Exploratory Research Techniques
  • Case Studies
    • Intensively investigate one or a few situations similar to the problem situation
  • Experience Surveys
    • Individuals who are knowledge about a particular research problem are questioned
conclusive research
Conclusive Research
  • Provide specific information that aids the decision maker in evaluating alternative courses of action
  • Sound statistical methods & formal research methodologies are used to increase the reliability of the information
  • Data sought tends to be specific & decisive
  • Also more structured & formal than exploratory data
types of conclusive research
Types of Conclusive Research
  • Descriptive Research
    • Describes attitudes, perceptions, characteristics, activities and situations.
    • Examines who, what, when, where, why, & how questions
  • Causal Research
    • Provides evidence that a cause-and-effect relationship exists or does not exist.
    • Premise is that something (and independent variable) directly influences the behavior of something else (the dependent variable).
common characteristics of descriptive studies
Common Characteristics of Descriptive Studies
  • Build on previous information
  • Show relationships between variables
  • Representative samples required
  • Structured research plans
  • Require substantial resources
  • Conclusive findings
figure 3 5 major types of descriptive studies
Figure 3.5 Major Types of Descriptive Studies

Consumer Perception

And Behavior Studies

  • Image
  • Product Usage
  • Advertising
  • Pricing

Market Characteristic


  • Distribution
  • Competitive


Sales Studies

  • Market


  • Market


  • Sales


Major Types of Descriptive Studies



figure 3 6 cross sectional vs longitudinal designs
Figure 3.6 Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs



Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal Designs

Sample Surveyed at T1

Cross Sectional Design

Same Sample also Surveyed at T2

Sample Surveyed at T1

Longitudinal Design


figure 3 7 some alternative research designs
Figure 3.7 Some Alternative Research Designs

Some Alternative Research Designs

Exploratory Research

  • Secondary Data Analysis
  • Focus Groups

Conclusive Research

  • Descriptive/Causal


Conclusive Research

  • Descriptive/Causal


Exploratory Research

  • Secondary Data Analysis
  • Focus Groups

Conclusive Research

  • Descriptive/Causal


common characteristics of causal studies
Common Characteristics of Causal Studies
  • Logical Time Sequence
    • For causality to exist, the cause must either precede or occur simultaneously with the effect
  • Concomitant Variation
    • Extent to which the cause and effect vary together as hypothesized
  • Control for Other Possible Causal Factors
how descriptive causal designs differ
How Descriptive & Causal Designs Differ
  • Relationship between the variables
    • Descriptive designs determine degree of association
    • Causal designs infer whether one or more variables influence another variable
  • Degree of environmental control
    • Descriptive designs enjoy lesser degrees of control
  • Order of the variables
    • In descriptive designs, variables are not logically ordered
basic research methods
Basic Research Methods
  • Secondary Data Analysis
    • Historical analysis
  • Surveys
    • Asking; self-reported
  • Experiments
    • Testing in controlled environments
  • Observation
    • Watching & recording
which is the best research design method
Which is the “Best” Research Design & Method?
  • “You cannot put the same shoe on every foot.”
    • Publilius Syrus
  • It depends on the
    • problem of interest,
    • level of information needed,
    • resources,
    • researcher’s experience, etc.