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JM602 Consumer Behaviour. Lecture 9 – Learning and memory. Material in these slides. Primarily drawn from: Neal, Quester and Hawkins (2005). Consumer behaviour: Implications for marketing strategy (4 th ed). McGraw-Hill Irwin: Queensland. Material in these slides. Primarily drawn from:

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jm602 consumer behaviour

JM602Consumer Behaviour

Lecture 9 – Learning and memory

material in these slides
Material in these slides
  • Primarily drawn from:
  • Neal, Quester and Hawkins (2005). Consumer behaviour: Implications for marketing strategy (4th ed). McGraw-Hill Irwin: Queensland
material in these slides4
Material in these slides
  • Primarily drawn from:
  • Neal, Quester and Hawkins (2005). Consumer behaviour: Implications for marketing strategy (4th ed). McGraw-Hill Irwin: Queensland
learning and m emory
Learning and Memory
  • How do individuals (and consumers) learn?
  • What types of learning exist?
  • What are the main characteristics of learning?
  • How do we use learning in marketing strategies?
  • What is the importance of brand image and product positioning?
l earning
  • Learning refers to any change in the content or organisation of long-term memory
  • Consumer behaviour is largely learned behaviour
involvement and learning
Involvement and Learning
  • Learning under high-involvement conditions
    • consumer has a high motivation to learn
  • Learning under low-involvement conditions
    • most consumer learning is in a low-involvement context
types of learning
Types of Learning
  • Conditioning
    • classical conditioning
    • operant conditioning
  • Cognitive learning
    • iconic rote learning
    • vicarious learning/modelling
    • reasoning

Conditioning is based on the association of a stimulus (information) with a response (behaviour or feeling)

classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Establishing a relationship between stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus
  • Most common in low-involvement situations
  • Learning is more often a feeling or emotion than information
operant c onditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • Trial precedes liking
    • reverse is often true for classical conditioning
    • product sampling is an example of this type of learning
cognitive l earning
Cognitive Learning
  • Iconic rote learning
    • association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning
      • a substantial amount of low-involvement learning involves iconic rote learning
      • achieved by repeated advertising messages
cognitive l earning cont
Cognitive Learning (cont.)
  • Vicariouslearning/modelling
    • observe others' behaviour and adjust their own accordingly
      • common in both high-involvement and low- involvementsituations
  • Reasoning
    • most complex form of cognitive learning
      • most high-involvement decisions generate some reasoning
general c haracteristics of l earning
General Characteristics of Learning
  • The strength of learning is influenced by:
    • importance
      • separates high- and low-involvement learning situations
    • involvement
    • mood
    • reinforcement
    • stimulus repetitions
    • imagery
general c haracteristics of l earning cont
General Characteristics of Learning (cont.)
  • Extinction
    • forgetting occurs when reinforcement for learning is withdrawn
characteristics of learning cont
Characteristics of learning (cont)
  • Stimulus generalisation – the ‘rub-off- effect
    • brand equity
    • brand leverage
general c haracteristics of l earning cont29
General Characteristics of Learning (cont.)
  • Stimulus discrimination
    • Process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
    • why your brand is different
the response environment
The Response Environment
  • Strength of original learning affects ability to retrieve relevant information
  • Similarity of the original learning and the type of learning is important
  • Marketers aim to replicate these situations
  • Memory is the total accumulation of

prior learning experiences

  • Short-term memory
    • working memory
    • Elaborative activities – use of stored experience, values etc to interpret and evaluate information
    • Maintenance rehearsal – repetition of information to hold it in memory
memory cont
Memory (cont.)
  • Long-term memory
    • unlimited permanent storage
    • Episodic memory
    • schematic memory
      • linking to ‘chunks’ of information
marketing application and classical conditioning advertising
Marketing application and Classical Conditioning - Advertising
  • Retention of advertising:
    • Forgetting is greatest following learning, but extinction is rarely complete (Robertson, Zielinkski and Ward, 2004);
    • Retention increases with repetition:
      • The more repetition the greater the depth of learning and the slower the rate of decay (forgetting)
      • Repetition is more effective distributed over several periods than concentrated in a single period
      • Variation is form, style and expression, together with repetition of main points, is more effective
      • Greater complexity requires greater repetition
      • Greater interference from competing messages requires greater repetition
classical conditioning and advertising
Classical Conditioning and Advertising
  • Repetition:
    • At least three exposures is important:
      • First: creates awareness
      • Second: demonstrates its relevance to consumer
      • Third: reminds the consumers of its benefits (O’Guinn, Allan and Semenik 1998)
    • Too much of a good thing is wasted (Solomon 1992)
  • Media scheduling:
    • Frequency and timing to maximise learning and minimise forgetting is a major consideration (Runyon 1977)
classical conditioning cont
Classical conditioning (cont)
  • More meaningful or vivid material is better retained than less meaningful or vivid material
  • The more completely the material is initially learned the greater is retention
  • Material presented first (primacy) or last (recency) is better retained than material presented in the middle
instrumental conditioning and advertising
Instrumental Conditioning and Advertising
  • Advertising focused on rewarding or punishing consumers for a purchase decision:
  • Brand loyalty:
    • Over time consumers choose products that make them feel good or satisfy some need
    • Loyalty occurs because the brand responses made were sufficiently reinforced to result in learned behaviour (Robertson)
    • Difficult, but not impossible to break brand loyalty:
      • Marketers use deal activity and free sampling
instrumental conditioning and advertising37
Instrumental Conditioning and Advertising
  • Positioning:
    • Way a companies positions itself vis a vis its competitors in the consumer’s schematic memory
    • Requires successful attention to all aspects of information processing: exposure, attention, interpretation and committed to memory (through repetition)
    • Advertising must be consistent with all elements of marketing mix
  • Product repositioning
cognitive learning applications
Cognitive learning applications
  • Marketing is primarily concerned with cognitive learning (Runyon 1977)
    • Modelling
    • Many applications of consumer problem solving are related to ways information is represented in memory and recalled at later date (Solomon 1992)
  • Corrective advertising:
    • Difficult to ‘unlearn’ information
marketing applications
Marketing applications
  • Brand equity:
    • Consumers will exhibit other positive behaviours which benefit the compan
  • Brand leverage
    • Stimulus generalisation
    • Elements of successful brand leverage:
      • Complement
      • Substitutes
      • Transfer
      • image
product p ositioning s trategy
Product Positioning Strategy
  • Brand image
  • Product positioning
  • Perceptual mapping
  • Product repositioning
  • Brand equity and brand leverage
next lecture
Next Lecture…

Chapter 10:

Motivation, Personality and Emotion

jm602 consumer behaviour42

JM602Consumer Behaviour

Lecture 10 – Motivation, personality and emotion

material in these slides44
Material in these slides
  • Primarily drawn from:
  • Neal, Quester and Hawkins (2005). Consumer behaviour: Implications for marketing strategy (4th ed). McGraw-Hill Irwin: Queensland
motivation personality and emotion
Motivation, Personality and Emotion
  • What is motivation?
  • What theories help us understand motivation?
  • How do marketers can appeal to consumers’ motives?
  • What are the underlying aspects of the theories of personality?
  • How is personality related to marketing?
  • How can emotions can be used in marketing strategies?
what is the nature of motivation
What is the nature of motivation?
  • Consumer motivations are the energising forces that activate behaviour and provide purpose for and direction to that behaviour
  • Seem highly dependent on the situation at hand
  • Neal et al (2005) p. 322
theories of motivation
Theories of Motivation
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
  • McGuire’s psychological motives
maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction
  • Some motives are more basic or critical than others
  • The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated
  • As the basic motives become satisfied, the more advanced motives come into play.


  • Hierarchy
  • of Needs



Social Needs

(affection, friendship, belonging)

Ego Needs

(Prestige, status, self esteem)

Safety and Security Needs

(Protection, order, stability)

Physiological Needs

(Food, water, air, shelter, sex)