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JM602. Summary. Consumer behaviour & marketing strategy. Successful marketing strategies require a thorough understanding of consumer behaviour Basis for many marketing strategies: Product positioning Market segmentation New product development New market applications Global marketing

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JM602

Summary


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Consumer behaviour & marketing strategy

  • Successful marketing strategies require a thorough understanding of consumer behaviour

  • Basis for many marketing strategies:

    • Product positioning

    • Market segmentation

    • New product development

    • New market applications

    • Global marketing

    • Marketing mix decisions

    • Marketing regulation



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Consumer decision processSituational Influences

  • All behaviour takes place within the context of a certain situation. Therefore, behaviour will not only vary between consumers but the same consumer will exhibit different behaviours from one situation to the next.


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Situational influence

  • Types of situations

    • Communication situation

    • Purchase situation

    • Usage situation

    • Disposal situation

  • Classes of situational influence

    • Physical surroundings

    • Social surroundings

    • Temporal perspective

    • Task definition

    • Antecedent states


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Problem recognition

  • Discrepancy between actual & desired state

    • Size of discrepancy & magnitude of importance

  • Habitual, limited and extended decision making

  • Controllable & uncontrollable factors

  • Marketing implications:

    • Responding to problems (generic or selective)

    • Triggering problem recognition

    • Influence timing of problem recognition

    • Suppress problem recognition


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Information Search

  • Internal & external search

  • Type of information sought:

    • Evaluative criteria

    • Appropriate alternatives: awareness set, evoked set, inert set, inept set

  • Sources of information

    • Memories of past searches, low involvement learning

    • Personal sources

    • Independent sources

    • Marketing sources

    • Experiential sources

  • Amount of information search:

    • Cost verses the benefits

  • Marketing strategies based on information search patterns


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Evaluating & selecting alternatives

  • Nature of evaluative criteria:

    • performance levels or characteristics

  • Accuracy of consumer judgements:

    • Use of surrogate indicators

  • Decision rules:

    • Disjunctive, conjunctive, lexicographic, elimination-by-aspects & compensatory rules

  • Marketing strategy:

    • Type of criteria used, perception of various alternatives, relative importance of each criterion

    • Decision rules


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Store choice and purchase

  • Factors affecting retail outlet selection

    • Store image, type and amount of retail advertising, outlet location, outlet size

  • Shopping orientations of consumers

    • Affects outlet selection

  • In-store influences

    • Pop displays, price reduction, store layout, sales personnel, product stock-outs

  • Decision sequence

    • Marketers seek to influence in-store purchases


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Post purchase processes

  • Postpurchase process

    • Dissonance, usage & disposal

  • Post purchase dissonance

  • Product use:

    • Importance for customer satisfaction, product development, compliance with product liability laws

  • Product disposal

  • Customer satisfaction

  • Customer loyalty


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Perception

  • Nature of perception

    • Activities by which individuals acquire and assign meaning to stimuli (information processing)

  • Exposure, Attention, Interpretation

    • Stimulus factors

    • Individual factors

    • Situational factors

  • Marketing strategy:

    • Media strategy

    • Retail outlets

    • Packaging

    • Advertising

    • Selecting brand names


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Learning and memory

  • High and low involvement learning situations

  • Conditioning:

    • Classical & operant

  • Cognitive learning

    • Iconic rote, vicarious learning, reasoning



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General characteristics of learning

  • Strength of learning:

    • Importance, message involvement, mood, reinforcement, repetition, imagery

  • Extinction

  • Stimulus generalisation

  • Stimulus discrimination

  • Response environment

  • Memory:

    • Short and long term memory


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Marketing applications of memory and learning

  • Brand image

  • Product positioning

  • Product repositioning

  • Brand equity and brand leverage


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Motivation, personality and emotion

  • Nature of motivation:

    • Energising forces that activate behaviour

  • Theories of motivation

    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

    • McGuire’s psychological motives

  • Appealing to motives:

    • Manifest and latent motives

    • Motivational conflict

  • Personality & brand personality

  • Emotions


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    Attitude & Attitudinal change

    • Attitudes

    • Components of attitude

      • Cognitive, affective and behavioural

    • Attitudinal change strategies:

      • Affective component

        • Classical conditioning, affect towards the advertisement, mere exposure

      • Behavioural component:

        • Operant conditioning

      • Cognitive component:

        • Changing beliefs, shifting importance, adding belief, changing the ideal


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    Attitudinal change

    • Communication characteristics affecting attitudinal change:

      • Source characteristics

      • Appeal characteristics

      • Message structure characteristics

    • Marketing strategy:

      • Market segmentation

      • Product development


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    Demographics

    • Size, structure and distribution of the population

    • Demographic trends are important considerations for marketers

    • Subcultures

    • Changing gender roles

    • Nature of lifestyle

    • Psychographics


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    Household structure

    • Types of households (family/non family)

    • Household life cycle

    • Household decision making:

      • Information gatherer, influencer, decision maker, purchaser, user

    • Current and future trends in household consumption

      • Computers & video games, purchase of services, pets


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    Group influence & communication

    • Types of groups

      • Reference groups

      • Aspirational reference groups

    • Types of reference group influence:

      • Informational

      • Normative

      • Identification

    • Degree of reference group influence:

      • Visibility, degree needed

    • Marketing strategy:

      • Personal selling strategies

      • Advertising



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    Groups & communication

    • Opinion leadership

    • Innovation

    • Marketing strategies and the diffusion process:

      • Segmentation

      • Diffusion-enhancement strategies


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    Social class

    • Concept of social class

    • Status crystallisation

      • occupation, income, education, ownership

    • Social class structure:

      • Functional approach

      • Reputational approach

    • Measurement of social class

      • Single index/multiple index measures

    • Marketing strategy

      • advertising


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    Exam

    • 3 sections

      • A: one compulsory question

      • B: answer 3 out of 4 mid length responses

      • C: case study – answer both questions


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