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Make some connections. What does the skeletal system and the circulatory system have in common? Red marrow is the side of blood cell formation! Blood provides the skeleton with what it needs to work. What about the muscular system and blood? Delivering Oxygen to muscles.
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Make some connections What does the skeletal system and the circulatory system have in common? Red marrow is the side of blood cell formation! Blood provides the skeleton with what it needs to work.
What about the muscular system and blood? • Delivering Oxygen to muscles. • Motivated to run faster, many athletes focus on ways to improve VO2 Max levels. VO2 Max is the maximum amount of oxygen that our bodies can uptake and is measured as the quantity of oxygen per body weight over a set period of time. VO2 Max is affected by our heart’s volume per stroke, the total volume of blood in our system, and the hemoglobin’s ability to carry the oxygen. • http://www.the-fitness-motivator.com/improve-vo2-max.html
OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (VO2) • VO2 is the amount (expressed as a volume or V) of oxygen used by the muscles during a specified interval (usually 1 minute) for cell metabolism and energy production. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be used per minute, representing any individual’s upper limit of aerobic (or oxygen dependent) metabolism. It can be expressed as an absolute amout (again as a volume per minute) or as a % of each individual's personal maximum (%VO2max). • VO2max. dpends on: • lung capacity (getting oxygen from the air we breath into the blood which is passing through the lungs • cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped through the lungs, and of course the muscles as well, per minute) • and the ability of the muscle cells to extract oxygen from the blood passing through them (the arterio-venous or A-V O2 difference) • http://www.cptips.com/exphys.htm
What are some other important things the blood might carry for muscle contraction?
Other things regarding the muscular and cardiovascular systems? • Think about fainting. Why do we faint? • Muscles contracting around veins push blood back to the heart. • Heat regulation – muscle contraction and blood flow diversions to the skin.
Circulatory System I. Introduction A. Classification 1. Blood
2. Cardiovascular system = heart and blood vessels and 3. Lymphatic system = lymph organs, vessels and lymph
II. Blood A. Overview 1. Blood is a type of connective tissue (cellular elements in a matrix)
a. cell portion - formed elements b. matrix - plasma (liquid portion)
2. Helps maintain homeostasis: a. by transportation - of nutrients and wastes b. by protection - by white blood cells and antibodies
c. by regulation - body temperature and pH Health indicators 3. Color - red hemoglobin pigment 4. Volume - about 8% of body weight, 4 - 6 liter average
Word origins worksheet – due ……… 89 points – don’t turn in late!
5. Viscosity - resists flow. Is thicker and denser than water 6. pH - slightly basic (7.35 - 7.45)
B. Plasma 1. Composition a. 92 % water b. 8 % solutes
1) proteins, gases, nutrients, electrolytes, and hormones 2. Plasma proteins a. functions 1) increase viscosity
Fibrinogens play role in blood clotting. Gamma Globulins are antibodies in the immune system. Albumin increases the viscosity!
2) immune response - antibodies are proteins 3) blood clotting
C. Formed elements 1. Erythrocytes - red blood cells (RBCs) a. 95 % of formed elements
b. 4.6 to 6.2 million RBCs per mm3 for males (females 4.2 - 5.4 mill) c. biconcave shape d. hemoglobin - 1/3 of volume of RBC to carry oxygen and traces of carbon dioxide.
e. production - in the red bone marrow. 1) regulation of production by response to oxygen levels in kidney and liver. 2) release of hormone erythropoietin
f. Life span = about 120 days 1) recycling of RBC's ( 10 billion per hour) Hemoglobin breaks down into iron (to bone marrow) and biliverdin and bilirubin ( to liver)
Word Origins ! See page 353 Wingerd Bile = bile Verde = green Erythros = red Ruber = red
2. Leukocytes - white blood cells a. about 5,000 to 10,000 per mm3 b. Shape and appearance varies (basis of classification)
Word origins – did you know? Ectomy – excision comes from… “ec” – out “tom-” – to cut “-y” – noun-forming suffix So ectomy literally means, “the process of cutting out”.
Word origins – the –sis, -sia, -osis to –tic change. -sis = formation (the noun form) -ic = forming (or pertaining to formation) (adjectival form)
c. Classification 1) Granulocytes (Named by how they react to acid/base stains.) a) Neutrophils b) Eosinophils c) Basophils
2) Agranulocytes a) Lymphocytes b) Monocytes d. Functions = protection from disease
1) Phagocytosis a) diapedesis - WBC moving inbetween cells outside the vessels. b) pus - living, dead, and broken cells and plasma
Greek Word Origins ! Dia - “through” Pedan - “to leap”
2) Antibody production 3) Histamine production - histamine causes swelling to help move the WBCs to the area of injury or infection.
3. Platelets/Thrombocytes a. Formation - from precurser cell fragments b. Quantity - 150,000 - 360,000 per mm3
c. shape - disc shape, about a tenth the size of a RBC d. Function - initiate blood clot formation
D. Hemostasis (stopping blood) - time- 2 to 8 minutes Note: text that is reduced to a non-visible font are things omitted from the 2009 circulatory system unit. 1. Step 1 - Blood vessel spasm a. smooth muscle contraction when a vessel is damaged.
b. usuallysts less than 30 minutes ( serotonin lengthens the time) c. contraction closes broken ends of a vessel
2. Step 2 - Platelet plug a. platelets migrate to injury b. platelets increase in size c. platelets become sticky d. platelets form a clump with collegen fibers of the vessel wall.
3. Step 3 - Coagulation = blood clotting a. plasma protein conversions 1) ultimately fibrinogen to fibrin (thread-like proteins)
Blood clotting problems 1. vitamin K deficiency 2. liver diseases 3. hemophilia ( lacking various clotting factors)
4. unwanted clots = thrombus 5. embolus = a free floating thrombus
E. Blood Groups 1. Discovery = clumping of RBCs when non compatible blood mixed (1800s) 2. Cause of clumping
a. RBC antigens b. plasma antibodies 3. ABO Blood typing
Source: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/~johnson/labtools/Dbiochem/blda.jpg Type A Blood!