unit 1 prehistory to early civilizations n.
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Unit 1: Prehistory to Early Civilizations. Ms. Willia. Neolithic Revolution. Agriculture. Agriculture: farming and raising livestock Before the Neolithic period, most humans made their living by hunting and gathering humans were constantly on the move

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  • Agriculture: farming and raising livestock
  • Before the Neolithic period, most humans made their living by hunting and gathering
    • humans were constantly on the move
  • People in the Middle East discovered they could plant and harvest a wheat plant they found growing wild.
  • At about the same time…
    • people began to domesticate wild animals
    • raising them for food and as a source of power that could pull wagons and plows
  • People no longer had to follow the wandering animal herds
    • they could settle in one place
    • grow crops
    • build towns and cities
  • With permanent homes…
    • People could collect more possessions
    • Encouraged the invention of new technologies
  • Human population jumped from about two million people during the early Stone Age to about 60 million during the late Stone Age.
  • Farmers learned to grow more food than they needed for their own use, resulting in a surplus.
    • made it possible to accumulate wealth
    • leading to job specialization because not everyone had to raise food to make a living.
  • Some people could specialize in non-agricultural work
    • like making pottery
    • becoming priests or government officials
  • Agriculture became the main source of wealth in most societies until the industrial age.
neolithic revolution1
Neolithic Revolution
  • During the Neolithic period and immediately after, humanity made a giant leap in culture
  • Toward the end of the last Ice Age, forests and grasslands began to appear in many areas
  • In a period of 5,000 years, people gradually moved from hunting & gathering to producing food
  • New agricultural methods came about
  • This led to massive changes in the way people lived!
neolithic revolution2
Neolithic Revolution
  • This revolution took place slowly
  • Took place at different times in different parts of the world
  • The crops that Neolithic people developed varied from place to place
  • Farming made life easier for people
    • Brought a steady food supply
    • Allowed them to live in one place longer
neolithic revolution3
Neolithic Revolution
  • Farming also allowed people to create villages and small societies
  • Crude houses were constructed with mud bricks
  • Several related families usually lived in one house
neolithic revolution4
Neolithic Revolution
  • Neolithic farmers invented the plow and trained oxen to pull it.
  • Neolithic villagers invented the loom and began to weave linen and wool
  • They learned how to make jewelry and better weapons
  • People created calendars to measure the seasons & determine when to plant crops
neolithic revolution5
Neolithic Revolution
  • People began caring about boundary lines and rules of inheritance because their food supply depended on land ownership.
  • As villages began competing for land and water, warfare was created.
  • Neolithic people believed in deities or gods and goddesses
  • Culture is a term for the knowledge and achievements passed on from one generation to another to form the way of life shared by a group of people.
  • Culture includes:
    • the knowledge a group of people have
    • the language they speak
    • the ways in which they eat and dress
    • their religious beliefs
    • their achievements in art and music.
  • What benefits did language offer to humanity?
    • Made it possible for people to work together (organize duties, give directions)
    • Enabled people to exchange ideas about the world
    • Provided a way for people to socialize and entertain each other (storytelling)
    • Most important of all, it allowed people to pass history and culture on from one generation to another
  • Agriculture and irrigation began in an area of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent.
  • The world’s first known city developed at Jericho in Palestine around 8,000 BC.
    • Walls were built around Jericho to protect its agricultural surplus from nomadic raiders.
  • Agriculture and other technologies spread fastest in Eurasia for several reasons:
    • much of Eurasia lies in a temperate zone suitable for agriculture
    • Eurasia had more plants and animals that could be raised by humans
    • and it had more people