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Brain PowerPoint Presentation

Brain

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Brain

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  1. Brain • 2% of body weight • 15-20% of resting cardiac output to supply glucose and oxygen • Most metabolically active part of the body

  2. Brain Anatomy

  3. Left vs. Right Brain • Motor: Right brain controls Left body • Sensory: Left side goes to Right brain • Left side: language, math, logic • Right side: spatial abilities, facial recognition, visual imagery, music • Link: Corpus Callosum

  4. Split brain experiment http://www.youtube.com/embed/ZMLzP1VCANo

  5. Functional Left Brain Regions

  6. Memory • Short term “working memory” prefrontal lobe • Memory associations, episodic memory (like of a great party) Temporal lobe (hippocampus) • Memory storage: All over the brain

  7. Frontal LobeFunction • Reasoning • Planning: Parts of speech • Movement: • Emotion: • Problem Solving:

  8. Frontal LobeFunction: Sign of injury • Reasoning: Impulsiveness • Planning: Disinhibition • Parts of speech: Expressive Aphasia • Movement: Abulia • Emotion: Labile / No concern for others • Problem Solving: Can’t sequence

  9. http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=124119468&m=124188677http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=124119468&m=124188677

  10. Brain Changes over time http://www.edinformatics.com/news/teenage_brains.htm The above composite MRI brain images show top views of the sequence of gray matter maturation over the surface of the brain. Researchers found that, overall, gray matter volume increased at earlier ages, followed by sustained loss and thinning starting around puberty, which correlates with advancing cognitive abilities. Scientists think this process reflects greater organization of the brain as it prunes redundant connections, and increases in myelin, which enhance transmission of brain messages.

  11. Parietal Lobe • Praxis • Spatial Orientation • Recognition of fingers i.e. ring, thumb • Perception of stimuli • Reading • Arithmetic • Left right orientation

  12. Parietal Lobe: Tests • Praxis: motor task without nonverbal cues • Spatial Orientation: drawing clock face • Recognition of fingers i.e. ring, thumb • Perception of stimuli: ID objects in hand or letters written on hand • Reading • Arithmetic: subtract 7s from 100 • Left right orientation: place left hand on right elbow

  13. Occipital Lobe • Visual Processing

  14. Occipital Lobe • Visual Processing Can’t name or point to a color, can’t identify familiar faces Could be blind

  15. Temporal Lobe: • Perception and recognition of Auditory and Olfactory stimuli: • Long term memory • Speech • Expressive Behavior

  16. Temporal Lobe: Injury • Perception and recognition of Auditory and Olfactory stimuli: • Long term memory: Amnesia • Speech Receptive aphasia • Expressive Behavior: Irritable, childish, angry

  17. Aphasia • Disorder of speaking, reading, writing and understanding language • Receptive aphasia: Can’t understand language fluent nonsense, not aware, and often don’t recover

  18. Aphasia • Expressive aphasia: Can’t generate language aware, frustrated and can recover • Can’t repeat “No ifs, ands or buts” • Can’t name • Can follow directions

  19. Apraxia • Orofacial: on command cannot lick lips, throw a kiss, whistle • Limb kinetic: cannot do precise hand movements • Sequence: cannot dress, eat • Constructional: can’t copy

  20. Cerebellum • Coordinates movements • Controls balance, • Maintains equilibrium • Maintains muscle tone

  21. Cerebellar injury • Loss or coordination • Inability to judge distance (when to stop) • Inability to perform rapid alternating motions • Staggering gait with poor balance • Slurred speech • What can it be confused with? http://www.youtube.com/embed/eBvzFkcvScg

  22. Brain stem • Automatic functions (breathing, HR, BP) • Alertness/Sleep • Origin of cranial nerves

  23. Brain stem injury • Can cause death • Cranial nerves disorder • Vertigo • Weakness

  24. Neuron

  25. Ion movement in depolarization http://www.youtube.com/embed/yQ-wQsEK21E

  26. How the Action Potential spreads http://www.youtube.com/embed/ifD1YG07fB8

  27. Synapse http://www.youtube.com/embed/HXx9qlJetSU

  28. Blood supply to the brain

  29. Posterior Circulation

  30. The PCA supplies parts of the midbrain, occipital and occipitoparietalcortices • The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the largest of the intracerebral vessels and supplies almost the entire convex surface of the brain, including the lateral frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

  31. The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) supplies the whole of the medial surfaces of the frontal and parietal lobes, the anterior four fifths of the corpus callosum

  32. Cerebrovascular AccidentCVA Commonly called a Stroke

  33. Cerebrovascular Disease: Stroke • ~ 200, 000 death/year in U.S. • Main cause of adult disability • What is it exactly? abrupt onset of neurological deficit caused by a problem with the blood supply

  34. Types of stroke http://www.youtube.com/embed/fKrXCly1kK0

  35. Causes of stroke • Blood supply is blocked 70 % Thrombosis (local block in artery) Emboli (loose fragment blocks artery) • Artery ruptures 30% Hypertension Aneurysm (congenital/acquired)

  36. Stroke risk http://www.youtube.com/embed/7GHsWtQ91Bk

  37. Risk Factors • Prior stroke or Transients Ischemic Attack TIA • Over 55 y/o 3. Family history 4. Hypertension 5. High Cholesterol 6. Diabetes 7. Smoking 8. Overweight BMI > 25

  38. 8. Physical Inactivity 9. Heart Disease 10. Birth Control Pills 11. Heavy or Binge Drinking 12. Illegal drug like cocaine and methamphetamines