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Sunflower and Oilseed Storage
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  1. Sunflower and Oilseed Storage Stored Products Research and Education Center Oklahoma State University Carol Jones Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

  2. Storage Concerns • Sunflower • Canola • Soybean • Sesame • Safflower

  3. Storage Concerns • Moisture Content • Sunflower: 8 – 10% mc • Hulls dry faster than kernels • Overnight in a sealed jar • Canola: 10 – 12% mc • Soybeans: 12%...seed at 10% • Sesame: less than 6% • Safflower: 5 – 8%

  4. Storage Concerns Why so dry???????? Rancidity in Oklahoma heat Oil content = microbial activity Oil content = heat Sweat period

  5. Storage Concerns Sunflower: hulls have hair-like fibers fibers can cause increase fire danger test weight 28 – 32 lb/bu...cover when hauling low speed augers to prevent damage

  6. Storage Concerns Canola: • seed is VERY small, hard to handle • sweat period is about 6 weeks • test weight 52 lbs/bu • oil content 40 – 50% • begin aeration immediately

  7. Storage Concerns Soybeans: • using a dryer? Keep air above 40% rh and around 85 degrees F.... • maybe ambient will work • run augers as full and slow as possible • test weight 60 lbs/bu • aerate once a month after initial cooling

  8. Storage Concerns Sesame: • Much like handling canola except... • Planted in spring, harvested in fall • Takes longer to dry in windrow than canola • Fewer inputs than canola • High fat (50% oil), 25% protein, 43 – 47 lb/bu • Small flat seed • Goes rancid quickly in heat at MC > 6%

  9. Storage Concerns Safflower: • 38 lb/bu test weight • 34 – 36% oil content • Seeds are white • Harvested and handled much like canola • Dries very quickly in windrows

  10. Special Characteristics • Bins with perforated floors work best • Ambient air/fan sufficient for drying/cooling • No aeration??? Move between bins

  11. Prepare Bins for Storage • Floor perforations must be protected • Line bottom of bins • two layers of aluminum window screen • trampoline tarpaulin • Leave opening for grain unloading

  12. Store Clean Canola • Debris can add moisture and attract insects • Clean using • scalper aspiration • indent cylinder cleaning • sieve screening • Clean to less than 2.3% foreign material

  13. No spoilage for at least 5 months Spoilage after 5 months Optimum storage Temperature and Moisture • Optimum temperature is 55°F • Double storage time for every 10° below 77° and 1% reduction in moisture below 9%

  14. Temperature • Above 77°F • Free fatty acids may form when stored longer than a year (1-1.5% limit) and causes rancidity • peroxide levels increase • oil darkens • Insect activity increases

  15. Molds • Mold forms above 60% equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) ERH and temperature influence on seed moisture content (NDSU 2005) Shaded area shows moisture content for optimum conditions

  16. Aeration • Bin must have aeration system • Full floor perforation is best • Positive pressure is preferred • Grain surface should be leveled • Airflow rates for temperature management • 0.08 – 0.15 cfm/bu • At 0.08 cfm, up to 150-200 hours for a 20° drop • Airflow rates for natural air drying • 0.4 – 2.0 cfm/bu – increase static air pressure • run fans continuously until desired moisture

  17. Aeration • Static pressure • Sunflower • 30 Ft. deep at 1.0 cfm/bu...15.1 inches • for canola is 2-3 times that of wheat • 30 ft. deep at 1.0 cfm/bu...75 inches!!!! • 10 ft. deep at 1.0 cfm/bu...7 inches • Soybeans • 30 ft. deep at 1.0 cfm/bu...7.7 inches • Sesame • Similar to canola • Safflower • “Less than most other grains”

  18. KEY THOUGHTS... • Monitor bins closely...weekly • Temp control + MC control + insect control = SUCCESSFUL OILSEED STORAGE

  19. Insect Pests Found in Bins • Very few insects were found • Those found included: • Rusty grain beetle • Red flour beetle • Lesser grain borer • Indianmeal moth • Booklice • Predatory mites were also found

  20. Oilseeds..the market • Another option • Rotation • Biodiesel • Crusher in OKC

  21. Questions? BIOSYSTEMS.OKSTATE.EDU/HOME/JCAROL