Bureaucracy- Max Weber • Until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy there was not much interest in a theory of public administration • The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration's sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis and statistics, budgeting and ethics.
The Many Meanings of Bureaucracy • First, “the bureaucracy is the totality of government offices or bureaus that constitute the permanent government of the state. • Second, “the bureaucracy” refers to all of the public officials of a government, both high and low, elected and appointed. • Third, bureaucracy is often used as a general invective to refer to any inefficient organization encumbered by red tape.
The Many Meanings of Bureaucracy • Bureaucracy refers to a specific set of structural arrangements (Max Weber). • Bureaucrats are free as individuals. • Hierarchy. • Clearly specified functions. • Freedom of hiring. • Appointment by merit. • Due compensation and due process. • Advancement by merit or seniority.
Approaches to the study of public administration • Behavioral Approach • System's Approach • Ecological Approach • Structural Functional Approach • Public Choice Approach • Contingency Approach
Approaches to the study of public administration • According to academia, the field of public administration consists of a number of sub-fields. • Scholars have proposed a number of different sets of sub-fields. • One of the proposed models uses five "pillars":
Approaches to the study of public administration • Human resource management is an in-house structure that ensures that public service staffing is done in an unbiased, ethical and values-based manner. - Organizational Theory in Public Administration is the study of the structure of governmental entities and the many particulars inculcated in them.
Approaches to the study of public administration • Ethics in public administration serves as a normative approach to decision making. • Policy analysis serves as an empirical approach to decision making. • Public budgeting is the activity within a government that seeks to allocate scarce resources among unlimited demands.
International public administration • There are several organizations that are active. • The Commonwealth Association of Public Administration and Management CAPAM http://www.capam.org/ is perhaps the most diverse, covering the 54 member states of the Commonwealth • Covering India to Nauru. Its biennial conference brings together ministers of public service, top officials and leading scholars in the field.
International public administration • The oldest is the International Institute of Administrative Sciences. Based in Brussels, Belgium. • It provides a space for exchanges that promote knowledge and practices to improve the organization and operation of Public Administration • It ensures that public agencies will be in a position to better respond to the current and future expectations and needs of society.
Behavioral approach • Behavioralism is an approach in political science, which emerged in the 1930s in the United States. • It represents a sharp break from previous political science. • This is because it emphasizes an objective, quantified approach to explain and predict political behavior. • It is associated with the rise of the behavioral sciences, modeled after the natural sciences.
Behavioral approach • Behavioralism seeks to examine the behavior, actions, and acts of individuals • Rather than the characteristics of institutions such as legislatures, executives, and judiciaries • And groups in different social settings and explain this behavior as it relates to the political system.
Behavioral approach • Behavioralists used strict methodology and empirical research to validate their study as a social science. • The behavioralist approach was innovative because it changed the attitude of the purpose of inquiry • During its rise in popularity in the 1960s and 70s, behavioralism challenged the realist and liberal approaches • Which the behavioralists called "traditionalism", and other studies of political behavior that was not based on fact.
Behavioral approach • To understand political behavior, behavioralism uses sampling, interviewing, scoring and scaling and statistical analysis. • Behavioralism studies how individuals behave in group positions realistically rather than how they should behave. • For example, a study of the Pakistan Parliament include a consideration of how members behave in their positions.
Easton's "intellectual foundation stones" of behavioralism • Regularities - The generalization and explanation of regularities. • Commitment to Verification - The ability to verify ones generalizations. • Techniques - An experimental attitude toward techniques. • Quantification - Express results as numbers where possible or meaningful. • Values - Keeping ethical assessment and empirical explanations distinct. • Systemization - Considering the importance of theory in research. • Integration- Integrating social sciences and value
Criticism • The approach has come under fire from both conservatives and radicals for the purported value-neutrality. • Conservatives see the distinction between values and facts as a way of underminingthe possibility of political philosophy. • Neal Riemerbelieves behavioralism dismisses "the task of ethical recommendation" because behavioralists believe "truth or falsity of values