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  1. Plagiarism and Citations Miss Bair

  2. What is plagiarism?

  3. Definition • Plagiarism is passing off someone else’s ideas, words or images as though they were your own.  It applies equally to the work of other students as to published and online sources. 

  4. How to avoid plagiarism 1.      Never copy directly 2.      Never print directly 3.      Never copy from other students

  5. Plaigiarism and your paper • When researching for your paper, your sources serve as your life-line • Include as much information about the source in your notes as possible (author, title, page number, quotes) • Write things that support your thesis • Organize your sources and paper clip like ones together (this will make you bibliography easier!)

  6. Last Page of Paper After you have created all the citations for your paper, there are several different ways of crediting your work: 1. bibliography – includes publications and online sources 2. works cited – includes publications and online sources 3. webography – includes only online sources Pick the one that makes the most sense!

  7. Book • Abraham Lincoln In Peace and War Miers, Earl Schenck. Abraham Lincoln in Peace and War. New York: American Heritage Pub.; Book Trade and Institutional Distribution by Harper & Row, 1964. Print. 2. Lincoln, the War President Boritt, Gabor S. Lincoln, the War President: The Gettysburg Lectures. New York: Oxford UP, 1994. Print.

  8. Your Turn • You will have 5 minutes to complete this task. • Move with a partner (quickly) to a computer and log yourselves in. Go to • Take 2 books from the table • Create 2 book citations and copy them down on the paper given to you.

  9. Common Knowledge It is perfectly acceptable and recommended to use common knowledge within papers. • Common knowledge is: facts that are known to many people and sources • IE: George Washington was the first president.  • Common knowledge does not have to be cited. • IE: Barrack Obama is the first African American president.

  10. In-text Citing An in-text citation is when you provide information about the source in the text of a paper. Often, in-text citations include a signal phrase which gives the author's name and a parenthetical reference, which can include the author's name and the page number. I.E. - (Author’s name, page number)

  11. Quoting directly • Always use quotation marks (Punctuation inside quotation marks.) • Always give credit to the source - In a bibliography—can include both publications and online sources - Or webography—includes usually only online sources

  12. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is defined as: “A restatement of a text or passage in another form or other words, often to clarify meaning.” (Online Dictionary) When writing a paper: 1.      Using your own words is acceptable 2.      Always give credit to the source

  13. In-text Examples • Lincoln, the War President by Babor S. Borit “Generations of lurid warnings had also made civil war a more familiar and hence less frightening idea.” page 21 My paper: • The American Civil War was not a surprise; in fact, “generations of lurid warnings” had prepared Americans for the inevitable (Borit, 21). • According to Babor S. Borit, the American Civil War was not a surprise; in fact, “generations of lurid warnings” had prepared Americans for the inevitable (21). • The American Civil War was not a surprise, in fact, many generations had foreseen the inevitable (Borit, 21).

  14. Your Turn • You will have 8 minutes to complete this task. • You have created citations for 2 books already. Please pick one book with a partner, and create 3 examples of in-text citations.

  15. Online Sources Web Pages - Author’s last name, first name (if available) - Web page title—in quotes -Date Retrieved: Day, Month, Year - Main Page Title (If Available) -URL:  Web Site Address - Date Published or Revised:  Day, Month, Year (If Available)   Images (Graphic, picture, map or photo) - Description of title of image -Label [Online Image] - Available at:  URL  (copy and paste from web page)

  16. Website Citation "Abraham Lincoln." The White House. Web. 15 Sept. 2010. <>.

  17. Image Citation Photograph of Abraham Lincoln. [Online Image]. Avaliable at:

  18. What do you do? • When you are unsure of when something needs to be cited? • CITE IT ANYWAY! • It is better to overcite than to never give credit at all • When you can’t find a piece of information to cite, like an author? • DO NOT MAKE UP SOMETHING! • Simply leave it blank