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Infectious Disease. The risks and risk of treatment. Understanding Wildlife Disease. Wildlife Disease Infectious Zoonotic Viral Bacterial Fungal Parasitic. Essential factors for disease transmission. Must be a causative agent Bacteria / Fungus Virus Parasite Must be a reservoir

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infectious disease

Infectious Disease

The risks and risk of treatment

understanding wildlife disease
Understanding Wildlife Disease
  • Wildlife Disease
    • Infectious
    • Zoonotic
      • Viral
      • Bacterial
      • Fungal
      • Parasitic
essential factors for disease transmission
Essential factors for disease transmission
  • Must be a causative agent
    • Bacteria / Fungus
    • Virus
    • Parasite
  • Must be a reservoir
    • Animate
    • Inanimate
  • Must have an Exit Portal
    • Normal = respiratory, gastrointestinal, secretions, urogenital
    • Abnormal = Lesions
essential factors for disease transmission4
Essential factors for disease transmission
  • Must be a causative agent to transfer to from the reservoir to the host
    • Direct
      • Contact
      • Injection
      • Inhalation
      • Ingestion
    • Indirect
      • Soil
      • Air
      • Water
    • Vector
      • Mechanical - Carrier
      • Biologic - Host for change
  • Must know the method of transmission to contain the spread
essential factors for disease transmission5
Essential factors for disease transmission
  • Must know the Portal of Entry
    • Respiration
      • Aspergillosis
    • Ingestion
      • Roundworm
    • Lesions
      • Rabies
the susceptible host
The Susceptible Host
  • Primary Resistance Factors
    • Species Type
    • Intact Skin
    • Acquired Immunity (Vaccines)
    • Current overall health of the animal
  • Secondary Resistance Factors
    • Pathologic States
    • Nutritional States
    • Physiologic Adaptations
    • Sex
    • Age
    • Occupation
common infectious disease in rehab
Common Infectious Disease in Rehab
  • Distemper
  • Parvo
    • Canine
    • Feline
    • Mutant
  • Pan Leukopenia
  • Erlichiosis
  • Aspergillosis
  • Lyme Disease
  • West Nile Virus
  • Encephilitus
  • Cytauxzoonosis
  • Rabies
  • Leptosporosis
  • Chlamidiosis
bacteriosis
Bacteriosis
  • Leptospirosis
    • Leptospires transmitted through urine
    • Flu-like Symptoms
    • Common in Rodents and other wild animals
  • Lyme Disease
    • Common Wild Hosts = Deer, Mice Squirrels, Raccoons
    • Transmission through tick bite\
    • Bull's-eye Rash appearing one month post bite
  • Salmonellosis
    • Mostly seen in rodents & reptiles
    • Fecal Oral route transmission
    • Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Botulism
    • Mostly Seen in Food Prep
    • Symptoms similar to Salmonillosis
viruses
Viruses
  • Rabies
    • Transmitted through Saliva
    • Neurologic symptoms
    • Seen in all mammals
    • Texas Epizootic State
  • Hantavirus
    • Transmitted through Saliva & Excreta of rodents
    • Fever-Like Symptoms
    • Zoonotic
  • Pan Leukapenia / Parvo
    • Highly contagious
    • Transmitted through Excreta & Saliva
    • Vomiting, Lethargy, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Fever
  • Distemper
    • Highly Contagious
    • Transmitted through Excreta & Saliva
    • Lethargy, Dull eyes, Paralysis
mycoses
Mycoses
  • Types of Mycoses
  • (direct invasion of tissue by fungal cells)
  • Category Area of the body effected
  • Superficial: Found on the outermost layers of the body covering; are generally of cosmetic impact rather than causes of illness or death; have not been reported in birds.
  • Cutaneous: Found on the skin and appendages
  • (dermatophytosis)
  • Subcutaneous: Usually found in the fat-containing tissues underneath the skin and in the Skin.
  • Systemic: Result in infection of internal organs as well as other tissues.
mycosis continued
Mycosis Continued
  • Aspergillosis
    • Transmission through inhaliation
    • Upper Respiratory symptoms
  • Dermatophytosis
    • Highly Contagious
    • Transmission through contact
    • Red scaly round circles / hair loss
  • White Nose Syndrome (WNS)
    • Seen in Bats
    • Highly Contagious
    • Killing large numbers of bats
    • Transmission presumed to be through contact
other infectious disease
Other Infectious Disease
  • Prions
    • Chronic Wasting Disease
      • Hoof Stock & Raptors
    • Encephalitis
      • Opossums & Mosquitoes
        • Equine protozoalmyeloencephalitis
parasites
Parasites
  • Visceral Larva Migrans
    • Roundworms
    • BaylisAscaris
  • Hydatidosis
    • Tape Worm
    • Treatment different than that for Strongyles
  • Sarcoptic & Demodetic Mange
    • Mites
    • Sypmtomology
    • Treatment
slide14

SARCOPSES

  • Effects entire body
  • Signature Ear Crust
  • Severe hair Loss
  • Lives ON Skin
  • Constant Scratching
  • DEMODETIC
  • Mostly seen in face and
  • chest area
  • Mild Hair Loss
  • Lives IN Skin
  • May not cause scratching
slide15

SCABIES

Scabies is defined by its red dots and soars rather than the scabby nature of Sarcoptic mange and most usually seen in squirrels in Texas. IT IS ZOONOTIC!

parasites continued
Parasites Continued
  • Mosquitoes
    • Heart Worms
    • West Nile Virus
  • Fleas
    • Anemia
  • Ticks
    • Cytaux
    • Lyme Disease
responsible trapping removal
Responsible Trapping & Removal
  • Using Traps Responsibly
    • Using the right trap
    • Trapping during baby season
    • Placement / Appearance
    • Time
      • How long can an animal stay in a trap?
      • How Often do I check it?
    • Bait
      • Live
      • Killed/commercial
      • Poison
  • Removing Wildlife from Traps
    • The BLOW Technique
    • Crate Caves
    • Transfer Cages
  • Removing Wildlife without traps
safe capture handling
Safe Capture & Handling
  • Techniques
    • Know your species
    • The Juvenile “Grip”
    • Catch Poles
  • Tools
    • Gloves
    • Blankets & Towels
    • Crates
  • Keeping your fingers
wildlife behavior
Wildlife Behavior
  • The Usual Suspects
    • Raccoons
    • Opossums
    • Squirrels
    • Bobcats
    • Coyotes
    • Fox
responsible release
Responsible Release
  • City and State law
    • 10-mile Rule
    • Why can Rehabbers help?
  • Choosing a release location
    • Urban
    • Rural
  • Choosing a time to release
    • Nocturnal / Dayurnal
    • Weather
  • Releasing “Suspect” Wildlife
in closing
In Closing…

Knowing when, where, and how to define, diagnose, and decide what happens with a trapped wild animal may determine whether Texas has another Epizootic Episode. Those working with wildlife are the front line against wildlife disease. By acting proactive and using your resources, you can ensure that few disease instance occur on the state of Texas.

Being responsible in both trapping and release will ensure environmental balances and disease control

slide22

IT’S ALL UP TO YOU!

Know it before you blow it!

Thank you!

The Wildlife Center at Crosstimbers Ranch

www.crosstimberswildlife.org

and

The national Bobcat Rescue and Research Foundation

www.NBRR.org