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Infectious Disease. Linda Cameron Current Issues Fall 2007. What are infectious diseases?. According to Merriam-Webster medical online dictionary: “a disease caused by the entrance into the body of organisms (as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses) which grow and multiply there”.

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Infectious Disease


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    1. Infectious Disease Linda Cameron Current Issues Fall 2007

    2. What are infectious diseases? According to Merriam-Webster medical online dictionary: “a disease caused by the entrance into the body of organisms (as bacteria, protozoans, fungi, or viruses) which grow and multiply there”

    3. Transmission Infections can enter the body through four different path ways • Airborne- coughing, sneezing (Influenza) • Direct contact- touching (Herpes) • Blood borne- bleeding (HIV) • Water and food borne- contamination (E. coli)

    4. Human Body Some microorganism reside in the human body in homeostasis • These usually do not cause harm • Although under certain circumstances some may over react and cause an illness

    5. Prevention • WASH YOUR HANDS- many times a day for approx. 2 min. Some strains of diseases resist the agent in no-soap antibacterial creams • IMMUNIZATIONS- although not 100% effective all the time, helps your body fit off diseases if you come in contact with it • STAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE SICK- close surrounding with those who even have the smallest cough could cause you or others a cold.

    6. Keep the athletes safe Not only do we have our own responsibility to stay healthy, we also have the athletes we are with to worry about • Isolate the athlete while they are sick- especially in huddles • Make them their own water bottle- don’t let them share with the team • Clean EVERY surface they come in contact with- right after they use it, whether it be rehab equipment or a table

    7. Nosocomial Infections According to General Medical Conditions in the Athlete: “is one that is acquired in the athletic training room or medical facility and that is unrelated to the athlete’s purpose for the visit.”

    8. Mononucleosis • Epstein-Barr virus- herpes virus family • Very common, 35-50% of adolescents and young adults end up with the infection • Transmitted easily through oropharyngeal contact • Signs and Symptoms • Fever • Sore throat • Extreme fatigue • swollen lymph glands • Sometimes enlarged spleen or liver • Symptoms subside but EBV remains dormant in the blood for life • Blood tests is the only way to confirm a case of mono

    9. Mononucleosis

    10. Chickenpox and Shingles • Herpes varicella • Usually occurs in childhood • 10-20 days of exposure • The virus remains dormant in the body and may cause problems later (Shingles) • Herpes zoster • Reactivation of the varicella disease • 90% of unvaccinated, or had the disease once, becomes infected

    11. Chickenpox and Shingles • Transmission • Direct contact; respiratory secretions, direct contact with vesicle fluid • Scabs are not contagious • Signs and Symptoms • Headache • Rash/ Lesions • Flu symptoms- fever, chills, aches • Herpes zoster rash appears within deratomes

    12. Chickenpox and Shingles Shingles Chickenpox

    13. Streptococcal Infections • Streptococci are found naturally in the GI tract, throat, respiratory system, and skin • Categorized into 5 groups • A, B, C, D, G • A, B, D most common • resistant to Bacitracin • Can cause problematic responses • Three states • Carrier, non-active, acute and delayed non-suppurative complication

    14. Group A • Suppurative • Invading bacteria that produce necrosis and cause acute inflammation • Tonsillitis, strep throat, impetigo, pneumonia, TSS, cellultis • Non-suppurative • Diseases occur in tissues remote from the original bacterial attack • Rheumatic fever • Necrotizing fasciitis • Flesh-eating bacteria • Rare, severe and fatal

    15. Group A Strep throat Impetigo

    16. Group A pneumonia

    17. Group D • Two types • Enterococcal- resides in the intestines • Nonenterococcal • Naturally found in • GI tract • Urinary tract • Wound infections

    18. Staphylococcal Infections • Grapelike clusters that cause numerous infections in every human body system • Patients with compromised immune systems are at greater risk • Chronic pulmonary disorders, diabetes mellitus, influenza, surgical incisions • Transmission • Hand-to-hand contact and airborne • Infected or under cooked foods

    19. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections • Characterized by: • Painful urination • Urethral discharge • Itching and burning • Most can be prevented using a protection barrier • Having one STD does not provide immunity

    20. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections • HIV • Sexually transmitted • Treated with medication • Genital warts • Caused by HPV; sexually transmitted • 60 different strains • HPV also causes nongential warts • Do not resemble acne or express discharge

    21. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections • Syphilis • Symptoms reflect other diseases • Preventable and curable • Secondary syphilis presents with rashes and lesions • Gonorrhea • Transmission through sexual contact and health care professionals through broken skin • Men and women are both effected, although signs and symptoms differ

    22. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections • Chlamydia • Almost ever species of bird and mammal infected with disease • Causes disease in humans in the eye, respiratory system and genital tract • Herpes Simples • Two types • Type 1- usually in the form of cold sores • 80-90% of US population infected • Type 2- usually in the genital area • 1 in 5 of US population infected

    23. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infections Chlamydia in the eye Herpes Simplex- Type 1

    24. There are MANY other infectious diseases that as athletic trainers we will come in contact with…. http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ … is a reliable place to start

    25. Why and Where in Athletics? • Why? • We don’t need cases of nosocomial infections • Most infections are easily spread • If a post-op patient their immune system is already weakened • Where? • Team huddles • Playing equipment • Treatment and Taping Tables • Sink • Water bottles • Rehab equipment • The air

    26. What do? “We’re not doctors or specialists…. There is power in REFERRAL

    27. References Center for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov Cuppett, M. and Walsh, K.M. (2005) General Medical Conditions in the Athlete Elsevier Mosby: St. Louis Google Images http://www.images.google.com Merriam-Webster Online Medical Dictionary http://medical.merriam-webster.com/medical Streator, Steve (2007) Class notes. General Medical Conditions in Athletes. Lock Haven University of PA