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Butanol as Fuel – View From the Field. NREL March 11, 2010 Sam Nejame Promotum. 1. Agenda . What is Butanol? Brief History ABE Process Today ’ s Butanol From Petroleum The Future of Butanol Fuels Questions. 2. What is Butanol?. Family of 4 Carbon Alcohols

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slide1

Butanol as Fuel – View From the Field

NREL

March 11, 2010

Sam Nejame

Promotum

1

slide2

Agenda

  • What is Butanol?
  • Brief History
  • ABE Process
  • Today’s Butanol From Petroleum
  • The Future of Butanol Fuels
  • Questions

2

slide3

What is Butanol?

  • Family of 4 Carbon Alcohols
  • Most common forms are normal butanol (n-buoh) and iso-butanol (i-buoh)‏
  • n-buoh primarily used to make butyl acrylates for coatings and adhesives
  • Both n-buoh and iso-buoh have good fuel properties

3

slide4

Physical Property

i-butanol

n-butanol

Ethanol

Density at 20°C (g/cm³)‏

0.802

0.810

0.794

Boiling Point at 1 atm (⁰C)‏

108

118

78

Water Solubility at 20⁰C (g/100mL water)‏

8.0

7.7

Miscible

Net Heat of Combustion (BTU/gal)‏

95,000

93,000

80,000

R+M/2

103.5

87

112

Blend RVP (psi at 100⁰F) 1

5.0

4.3

18-22

Butanol Physical & Fuel Properties

Promotum, Gevo

4

slide5

Summary Comparison Butanol to Ethanol Fuel

  • Higher energy content
  • Less hydrophilic
  • More compatible w/oil infrastructure
  • More compatible w/installed base of autos
  • Reduces blend vapor pressure
  • Less corrosive
  • Iso-butanol works well with gasoline
  • n-butanol works well with diesel

5

slide6

Butanol a Brief History

  • Acetone, Butanol, Ethanol (ABE) Process
  • First Industrial Fermentation Commercialized (1918)‏
  • Clostridium acetobutylicum bacteria
  • Acetone for Cordite
  • Later butanol for butyl paint & coatings (1930’s)‏
  • RAF planes flew on butanol during WWII
  • Petroleum based production becomes cheaper (1950s)‏

6

slide8

Problems w/Traditional ABE Process

  • Toxicity to the organism
  • Low product concentrations
  • Low yield

8

slide9

Butanol Production From Petroleum (1950s-Present)‏

  • Production of Butanol by oxo Alcohol Process
  • Players & Market Share
  • US & Global Manufacturing Capacity
  • Price history of butanol, ethanol, gasoline

9

slide10

Butanol Production From the oxo Process

  • Global market for nbuoh is 3.8 M mtons/Yr
  • Global iso-buoh is ~ 0.4 M mtons/Yr

Metex

10

slide12

Global Butanol Industry Capacity - Facility Cost Curve

Butanol

Cash Cost ($ / mton)‏

Cumulative Capacity (K mtons)‏

Source: Tetra Vitae, SRI; company analysis

Assumptions: $70 oil, range of feedstock cost

12

slide13

Domestic Butanol Production

DOMESTIC DEMAND

exports

Butanol Cash Cost

($ / mt)‏

Cumulative Capacity (K mtons)‏

Source: Tetra Vitae, SRI; company analysis

Assumptions: $70 Oil

13

slide15

The Future of Bio-Butanol Fuels

  • “Our goal is to build a supply chain from lignocellulose to butanol.”
  • Tony Hayward, CEO British Petroleum

15

slide16

Summary Bio-Butanol Process Goals

  • Power & Price of Biotechnology Tools... systems biology, pathway engineering...
  • Over expression butanol
  • Suppression of other pathways
  • Organism tolerance
  • Improving yield
  • Increasing productivity (rate)‏
  • Flexible feedstocks

16

slide17

Company

Bug

Bug Strategy

Molecule

Fermentation Process

Separation Strategy

Development Status

Gevo

Yeast

GMO UCLA Valine metabolism

iso-buoh

Semi batch

vacuum flash in situ removal followed by distillation trains

2010 Operating pilot in St. Johns, MO. 2011 Commercial

Cobalt Biofuels

Clostridium

Non GMO strain reduced etoh and acetone

n-buoh for blending w/gasoline, diesel, jet

Continuous modified ABE Fermentation

vapor compression distillation

2010 pilot 10-35k gpy 2011 demo 2-5m gpy 2012 commercial

Tetra Vitae

Clostridium beijerinckii

Non GMO selected for reduced etoh production

n-buoh and acetone 2:1

Semi batch "AB" Fermentation

Carbon dioxide stripping continuous in situ removal followed by distillation trains

2009 300 liter bench 2010 10,000 liter pilot

Butyl Fuel

Clostridiums Aceto & tyro

GMO & mutant strain

n-buoh

Continuous two stage dual path anaerobic fermentation

stripping following immobilized cell bioreactors

Unknown

Syngas Biofuels Energy

Fermentation of Syngas

GMO

n-buoh

Thermochemical catalyst

NA

Unknown

Status Domestic Butanol Companies

17

slide18

Company

Bug

Bug Strategy

Molecule

Fermentation Process

Separation Strategy

Development Status

Butamax (DuPont/BP)‏

1.Clostridium 2.E.Coli

GMOs

iso-buoh

Semi batch

continuous in situ removal followed by distillation trains

2010 Salt End Hull, UK 2013 Commercial Additional Feedstocks 2013+

Green Biologics (UK)‏

Clostridium. Mixed populations

GMOs high tolerance (4%)‏

n-buoh

Continuous fermentation

In situ removal unknown.

Building demo in India. Consulting w/Chinese firms

Metex (FR)‏

"Well known bacteria“

GMOs

n-buoh

Unkown

In situ removal unknown.

Unknown

Butalco (Switzerland)‏

Yeast

GMOs

unclear

Unkown

In situ removal unknown.

Unknown

China

Clostridium

Currently selected strain. Migrating to GMOs

n-buoh

Migrating from traditional ABE Fermentation.

May include in situ removal

2010 100MM gpy traditional ABE. 201X migration beyond ABE. Plans to add 350 MM gpy new capacity.

Status International Butanol Companies

18

slide20

Bio Iso-Butanol Fuel Commercialization Forecast

---$6bn chemicals-------------------------------------------------

20

Promotum

slide21

1

Pricing/Economics have to work

Markets for butanol, petroleum and sugar feedstocks change daily.

2

Avoid Food v. Fuel Round II

Butanol is a better alcohol, but for now corn is still the feedstock

3

Tax credits, biorefinery grants, loan guarantees

Need to be extended to butanol. Government and private investment are necc.

4

Enlist/Co-exist w/current ethanol producers

Infighting will slow production & adoption. Oil companies like BP (Butamax) may not be politically correct market driver.

5

Autos/Engine makers must approve

May be catalytic converter issues. Manufacturer's warrantees essential.

6

Consumer education

Higher energy content means a gallon isn't a gallon. Odor maybe a problem.

7

Technology improvements must continue

Anything beyond ethanol is new territory at this scale

Thoughts on Butanol Adoption

21

slide22

Acknowledgements

  • Jim Evangelow Chemical Strategies
  • Gorden Cheng ChemaLogic
  • Jay Kouba Tetra Vitae
  • Hans Blachek University of Illinois-Urbana
  • Adam Schubert Butamax
  • Ron Bray SRI Consulting

22

slide23

Thank You

Sam Nejame

Promotum

617.576.9084

Sam@Promotum.com

Twitter.com/renewables

23