Download
unit 2 learning to read and spell a national problem and recommended solutions n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Unit 2 Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Unit 2 Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions

Unit 2 Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions

108 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Unit 2 Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Unit 2Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions Scope of the Problem What Skilled Readers/Spellers Do Causes of Severe Reading Difficulty Overview of Evidence Based Practices

  2. Scope Of The Problem: Activity Thinking About Reading 2

  3. NAEP Reporting NAEP website, 2009

  4. 4th Grade Reading (2009) 33% below basic level 67% below proficient level National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2 NAEP website, 2009

  5. Reading achievement for Latino and African American fourth graders, 56 percent and 60 percent, respectively, of whom read at those below-basic levels that do not even provide sufficient support to allow the completion of schoolwork (Lee, Grigg, & Donahue, 2007). 2

  6. Thirty-three percent of poor readers come from homes with college-educated parents 2

  7. Only70 percent of high school students graduate on time with a regular diploma, and fewer than 60 percent of African-American and Latino students do so. 2 (Greene & Winters, 2005)

  8. Reading researchers have shown that 95% of students can learn to read with high levels of fluency and comprehension. Reading researchers have shown that 95% of students can learn to read with high levels of fluency and comprehension 2 2

  9. Approximately 40 percent of high school graduates lack the literacy skills employers seek. 2

  10. Afull70 percent ofU.S. middleandhighschoolstudentsrequiredifferentiated instruction —that isinstructiontargetedtotheirindividual strengths and weaknesses. 2

  11. 60% of America's prison inmates are illiterate and 85% of all juvenile offenders have reading problems. 2

  12. US dropouts’ literacy skills are lower than most industrialized nations, performing comparably only to Chile, Poland, Portugal, and Slovenia (OECD, 2000).

  13. Approximately 32 percent of high school graduates are not ready for college level English composition courses (ACT, 2005).

  14. Unit 2Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions Scope of the Problem What Skilled Readers/Spellers Do Causes of Severe Reading Difficulty Overview of Evidence Based Practices

  15. What Skilled Readers Do Keith Rayner and Monica Castelhano (2007) Eye movements. Scholarpedia, 2(10):3649, revision #54795

  16. Fixation Points

  17. How Do We Know That Readers Process Every Letter And Word? The girl ran excitadly down the hill. “Good readers focus their eyes on each word in the text, skipping function words such as be, in, or to, if they need to or whatever.” (Marilyn Adams, February 26, 2004 Children of the Code interview)

  18. How Many “F’s”? Franklin Featherstone is sometimes referred to as the Father of Refrigerated Freight, because of his efforts in publicizing the benefits of this form of transport.

  19. How Many “F’s”? Franklin Featherstone is sometimes referred to as the Father of Refrigerated Freight, because of his efforts in publicizing the benefits of this form of transport.

  20. Eye Movement Research 3 Marilyn Adams (2004)

  21. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. increasingly strategic WORD RECOGNITION PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION increasingly automatic The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.

  22. Skilled Reading: Principles of Brain Design Underpinning Cultural Inventions • Ability to form new connections • Capacity for automatization Parietal Lobe Frontal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe The design of the brain allows it to go beyond itself. Maryanne Wolf, 2007

  23. Skilled Reading: How the Brain Works word analysis- sound symbol connection Parietal Lobe Frontal Lobe Front Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe Back word meaning letter/word recognition Richards, Aylward, Raskind, et. al, 2006

  24. CONTEXT PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR Skilled Reading Process: Word Identification • Selects appropriate meaning based on context • Activates all possible meanings of a word • Receives visual information from print • Recognizes familiar patterns of letters • Processes every letter • Activates phonological image of word • “hearing the word in your head” 4 (Seidenburg and McClelland, 1989) (Berninger & Richards, 2002;Eden & Moats, 2002; Shaywitz, 2003) (Adams, 1990)

  25. CONTEXT PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR cat “cat” or |c|-|a|-|t| Skilled Reading Process: Word Identification Previous sentence: “I felt something small brush against my foot.” cat (Adams, 1990) (Seidenburg and McClelland, 1989) (Berninger & Richards, 2002;Eden & Moats, 2002; Shaywitz, 2003)

  26. Skilled Reading Process: Word Identification CONTEXT PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR World knowledge Syntax Selects appropriate meaning based on context Vocabulary Knowledge Activates all possible meanings of a word Receives visual information from print Recognizes familiar patterns of letters Processes every letter Activates phonological image of word “hearing the word in your head” Letter knowledge Spelling Patterns Phonological Awareness

  27. With Your Partner: Discuss: • Is one processing system more important to educate than the others at a given stage of reading development? • Is it possible to be a good reader if one system is not functioning well?

  28. dad read as “bad” TRG p. 56

  29. cat read as “kitty” TRG p. 56

  30. cap read as “sap” 6

  31. Student reads, “the lip of the bowl” and says, “bowls don’t have lips.” 6

  32. Stages of Reading and Spelling Ehri 1995, Moats 2000

  33. Logographic or Preconventional Johnston County School System

  34. Partial or Early Alphabetic JCSS

  35. Full or Later Alphabetic JCSS

  36. Consolidated Alphabetic or Orthographic JCSS

  37. How the Population Learns to Read Few 20% -Reading is One of the Most Difficult Tasks to Be Mastered Some 40% -Reading is A Formidable Challenge 35% -Reading is Relatively Easy All 5% -Reading is Easy 5 *Estimates and recommendations are based on the work of Lyon and other NICHD researchers

  38. Differences in Learning to Read

  39. Unit 2Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions Scope of the Problem What Skilled Readers/Spellers Do Causes of Severe Reading Difficulty Overview of Evidence Based Practices

  40. Brainstorming Activity What are some common causes of reading and spelling problems?

  41. Causes of Persistent Reading Difficulties Reading difficulty is related to inherited brain differences A child of a person with dyslexia is 8 times more likely to have dyslexia 90% of poor readers have problems with word reading accuracy

  42. Context Processor Meaning Processor Orthographic Processor Phonological Processor Causes of Reading Difficulties: Phonological Processing • Phonological Awareness • Word Retrieval • Working Memory 6

  43. May try to memorize words or over rely on context Students With PhonologicalAwareness Problems... 6 Have difficulty decoding and encoding words Have difficulty segmenting and blending sounds

  44. Difficulty learning names Students With Retrieval Problems... 6 Difficulty quickly naming even familiar concepts such as colors, numbers, letters Recall information in context but not in isolation

  45. Confuse names of items within categories: blue-green; here-there Students With Retrieval Problems... 6 Describe items rather than giving specific name Appear to learn names but then “forget”

  46. Have difficulty holding sounds in memory as they sound out a word Students With Working Memory Problems... 6 May have difficulty holding words in memory to get the meaning of a sentence

  47. Working Memory and Comprehension WORDS SENTENCES TEXT When word decoding is slow and laborious the whole system can break down.

  48. May have a combination of 2 or all 3 of these problems: • Phonological awareness • Word retrieval • Working memory Students With Double Deficits Double and triple deficit students are the most difficult to remediate

  49. Dyslexia is….. Dyslexia is our best, most visible evidence that the brain was never wired to read. -Maryanne Wolf Proust and the Squid, 2007 6

  50. Decoding Dyslexia