Unit 2Learning To Read and Spell: A National Problem and Recommended Solutions Scope of the Problem What Skilled Readers/Spellers Do Causes of Severe Reading Difficulty Instruction and the National Reading Panel
Scope Of The Problem: Activity Thinking About Reading
Differences in Learning to Read • Able to read: • Learn with ease: • Learn with support: • Learn with intensive support: • Have pervasive reading disabilities: Adapted by B. Bursuck based on Lyon, 1998
*Estimates and recommendations are based on the work of Lyon and other NICH researchers adapted by L.Huffman
4th Grade Reading (2007) 34% below basic level National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) • 68% below proficient level NAEP website, 2003
NAEP Criteria For Reading Levels • Basic • overall understanding • make obvious connections to own experiences • extend ideas with simple inferences • Proficient • inferential as well as literal overall understanding • make connections by inference, drawing conclusions • connections inferred should be clear • Advanced • generalize about topics in the text • awareness of how authors compose and use literary devices • judge text critically, answers indicate careful thought NAEP website, 2003
NAEP 4th grade level Just what Tom’s thoughts were, Ned, of course, could not guess. But by the flush that showed under the tan of his chum’s cheeks the young financial secretary felt pretty certain that Tom was a bit apprehensive of the outcome of Professor Beecher’s call on Mary Nestor. “So he is going to see her about something important, Ned?” “That’s what some members of his party called it.” “And they’re waiting here for him to join them?” “Yes, and it means waiting a week for another steamer. It must be something pretty important, don’t you think, to cause Beecher to risk that delay in starting after the idol of gold?” “Important? Yes, I suppose so,” assented Tom. – Victor Appleton, Tom Swift in the Land of Wonders
COMPARISON OF READING PROGRESS OF ALL STUDENTS • AND STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES (SWD) • 2001-2007 • Percent At or Above Grade Level GAIN 00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 • ALL NC • STUDENTS 77.1 79.5 84.9 85.3 85.7 86.7 87.4 10.3 • NC SWD 44.3 50.1 54.8 55.057.463.264.820.5
NC State Improvement ProjectREADING2007-2008 *Percent of students performing At or Above Grade Level in Reading ** The 2008 End of Grade Reading Test was revised with a higher level of difficulty.
Other Estimates Of The Reading Problem • 1/3 of poor readers come from college educated parents • 20% of all students have serious reading problems • Another 20% do not have enough skill to read with enjoyment • Reading researchers have shown that 95% of students can learn to read with high levels of fluency and comprehension (Louisa Moats, 1999)
Catching Up? How fast could a 3rd grader, reading 2 years behind, catch up to grade level?
2 4 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Progress per year 6 mo.
4 2 2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Progress per year 12 mo. 6 mo.
4 2 2 2 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Progress per year 12 mo. 6 mo. 18 mo.
To Order: Visit The National Children’s Foundation website: http://www.readingfoundation.org/ Click on Publications and it is listed as one of the books there. Quantity Price 1-10 $17.95 11-50 $14.95 51-100 $12.95 Fielding, L., Kerr, N., & Rosier, P. (2007). Annual Growth for all students, Catch-UP Growth for those who are behind. Kennewick, WA: The New Foundation Press, Inc.
Determining Proportional Increases State reading standard is 50th percentile A rough rule of thumb is 13% points from 50th % equals approximately 1 years growth Students in lowest performing groups receive more time in small group plus additional practice during the reading block
The Kennewick Model for Catch Up Growth Tony finishes 2nd grade scoring in the 12th percentile. What will it take to get him to the standard level? Tony’s school has reading scheduled 80 minutes per day. The reading block is delivered by 20+ minutes of direct instruction in small differentiated groups How did Kennewick educator’s solve the problem for Tony and help him get to the standard 50th percentile?
Kennewick’s Formula State standard in percentile is 50th % Tony’s 2nd grade status is… -12th % The difference in percentiles is… 38 points Percentile point difference divided by 13 is… 13/38 = 2.9 years behind
Planning for TAG(Target Accelerated Growth) Daily minutes required for annual 3rd grade80 minutes Daily minutes required for annual 4th grade growth+80 minutes 160 minutes Additional daily minutes for 3 years catch up growth (3 years x 80 minutes) + 240 minutes TOTAL3rd & 4th grade daily minutes……………400 minutes Dividing the instructional time equally between third and fourth grade shows thatTony needed 200 minutesof direct reading instruction inboth third and fourth gradesto reach the 50% goal by the end of the fourth grade school year
Spring 2008 Male completed 3rd grade scoring Level 1 on End of Grade tests placing him at 18th percentile on state test NC State Standard50 % John’s third grade percentile status…-18 % The difference is….32% 13/ 32 = 2.6 years (Estimation of - 2 ½ years behind…)
Utilizing Kennewick Formula Daily minutes required for annual 4th grade80 minutes Daily minutes required for annual 5th grade growth80 minutes Additional daily minutes to make the 2 ½ additional years of growth (80+80+40)+ 200 minutes TOTAL fourth and fifth grade daily minutes…………360 minutes Dividing the instructional time equally between fourth and fifth grade 2 years/360 minutes =180 minutes daily Shows that John needs 180 minutes of direct reading instruction inboth fourth and fifth grades to reach the 50% by the end of the fifth grade school year
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth (Hirsch, 1996) 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 High Oral Language in Kindergarten 5.2 years difference Reading AgeLevel Low Oral Language in Kindergarten 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Chronological Age
Families Professional Working-Class Welfare MeasuresParent Child Parent Child Parent Child Recorded Vocab.2,176 1,1161,498 749974 525 size Average utterances487 310 301 223176 168 per hour Average different382 297 251 216 167 149 words per hour Measures of Parent and Child Language Hart & Risley, 1995
Differences in exposure to words over one year Children in Professional Families -- 11 million Children in Working-Class Families -- 6 million Children in Welfare Families -- 3 million (Hart & Risley, 1995)
HIGH GROUP MIDDLE GROUP LOW GROUP The Expanding Achievement Gap Achievement K 1 4 3 2 Grade in School
“If low achieving students can be brought up to grade level within the first three years of school, their reading tends not to revert but to stay at grade level thenceforth.” Adams, 1990, p. 27-28
Unit 2Learning To Read: A National Problem Scope of the Problem What Skilled Readers/Spellers Do Causes of Severe Reading Difficulty Instruction and the National Reading Panel
LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. increasingly strategic WORD RECOGNITION PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION increasingly automatic The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) Fcrr.org Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.
The girl ran excitedly down the hill. What Skilled Readers Do • Eye-movement Research • saccade: sweeping motion (1/70 second) • fixation: stop, on nearly every word (1/4 second)
How Do We Know That Readers Process Every Letter And Word? The girl ran excitadly down the hill. “The single immutable and non-optional fact about skillful reading is that it involves relatively complete processing of individual letters of print.” (Marilyn Adams, (1990) Beginning to Read, p. 105)
Activity Observing Eye Movements
CONTEXT PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR Skilled Reading Process • Selects appropriate meaning based on context • Activates all possible meanings of a word • Receives visual information from print • Recognizes familiar patterns of letters • Processes every letter • Activates phonological image of word • “hearing the word in your head” (Adams, 1990)
CONTEXT PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR cat “cat” or |c|-|a|-|t| Skilled Reading Process Previous sentence: “I felt something small brush against my foot.” cat (Adams, 1990)
World knowledge Syntax Narrative development Book conventions Abstract knowledge Functions of Print CONTEXT PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR Skilled Reading Process • Selects appropriate meaning based on context Vocabulary Development Word Awareness • Activates all possible meanings of a word • Receives visual information from print • Recognizes familiar patterns of letters • Processes every letter • Activates phonological image of word • “hearing the word in your head” Letter knowledge Print conversions Phonological Awareness (Adams, 1990) Adapted by Van Kleeck (1998)
CONTEXT PROCESSOR Previous sentence: “I felt something small brush against my foot.” MEANING PROCESSOR ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR cat “cat” or |c|-|a|-|t| Explaining Errors With Processor Model Error 4 Student reads, “the lip of the bowl” and says “bowls don’t have lips!” Error 1 Student reads dad as “bad.” Error 3 Student reads cap as “sap.” Error 2 Student reads cat as “kitty.”
Putting Words Together To Make Meaning • The reader holds a string of words in working memory in the phonological processor. • The meaning of the string of words together is processed at the end of a sentence or clause. • The meaning of this sentence is related to earlier portions of the text. • When word decoding is slow and laborious the whole system can break down. Adams, 1990, pp. 186-190
Activity Based on Ehri, 1998,2000
Unit 2Learning To Read: A National Problem Scope of the Problem What Skilled Readers and Spellers Do Causes of Reading and Spelling Difficulties Instruction and the National Reading Panel
Brainstorming Activity What are some common causes of reading and spelling problems?
Causes of Persistent Reading Difficulties • 90% of poor readers have problems with word reading accuracy • Reading difficulty is related to inherited brain differences • Phonological processing problems are the cause of most reading difficulties: • Phonological awareness • Rapid naming/word retrieval • Working memory
Students With PhonologicalAwareness Problems... • Have difficulty segmenting words into sounds • Have difficulty mapping sounds to letters or letter patterns • May try to memorize words or over rely on context • May be misdiagnosed as having comprehension problems
Students With Naming Problems... • Difficulty quickly naming even familiar concepts such as colors, numbers, letters • Difficulty learning names • Recall information in context but not in isolation
Students With Naming Problems... • Describe items rather than giving specific name • Confuse names of items within categories: blue-green; here-there • Appear to learn names but then “forget”
Students With Working Memory Problems... • Have difficulty holding sounds in memory as they sound out a word • May have difficulty holding words in memory to get the meaning of a sentence
Double And Triple Deficits • Students may have a combination of 2 or all 3 of these problems: • Phonological awareness • Rapid naming/word retrieval • Working memory • Double and triple deficit students are the most difficult to remediate
Struggling readers and spellers • poor readers tend to be poor spellers • deficit in phonological awareness • poor PA makes memory of letter patterns difficult • cannot deal with several layers of language because no layer is automatic • improvement in reading often faster than improvement in spelling Moats, 1996