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CHAPTER 6: Periodic Table. Development of Periodic Table. Mendeleev Contributions – made very first periodic table p.t. arrangement: elements ordered by increasing atomic mass. Development of Periodic Table. 3) Noticed periodic pattern (repetition) in element properties

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Chapter 6 periodic table

CHAPTER 6:Periodic Table


Development of periodic table
Development of Periodic Table

  • Mendeleev

  • Contributions – made very first periodic table

  • p.t. arrangement: elements ordered by increasing atomic mass


Development of periodic table1
Development of Periodic Table

3) Noticed periodic pattern (repetition) in element properties

- elements placed in groups w/ similar properties

- Left gaps for substances yet to be discovered



Chapter 6 periodic table

4) errors: when new elements discovered, several elements on his table didn’t fit right

- had different properties


Moseley
Moseley his table didn’t fit right

  • periodic table arrangement: elements ordered by increasing atomic number

  • Periodic Law – when elements arranged by increasing atomic number, their physical & chemical properties show a periodic pattern


Modern periodic table
Modern Periodic Table his table didn’t fit right

  • Boxes contain:

    • Element name

    • Element symbol

    • Atomic number

    • Atomic mass


Modern periodic table1
Modern Periodic Table his table didn’t fit right

  • Arrangement – increasing atomic number

    a) groups – columns (vertical)

    b) periods – rows (horizontal)


Two divisions of elements
Two Divisions of Elements his table didn’t fit right

  • Main Group Elements – groups 1A, 2A and 13-18A

    (s & p block)


Two division of elements
Two Division Of Elements his table didn’t fit right

  • Transition Elements – group 3-12B elements (d block)


Classifying elements
Classifying Elements his table didn’t fit right

  • Metals

– elements w/ shine

– solid @ room temp

– conducts heat & electricity

– malleable: put into thin wires

– ductile: pound into sheets


Metals
Metals his table didn’t fit right

a) Alkali Metals – group 1A (except H)

- highly reactive, very soft

b) Alkaline Earth Metals – group 2A

- less reactive and denser than alkali metals

c) Transition Metals – d-block (group 3-12B)


Metals1
Metals his table didn’t fit right

d) Inner transition metals – f-block

i) Lanthanide Series – row 1 of f-block

ii) Actinide Series – row 2 of f-block

La

Ac


Nonmetals
Nonmetals his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn - gases or brittle, dull looking solids

    - poor conductors of heat & electricity

    a) Halogens

    b) Noble Gases

- group 17A

- highly reactive

- group 18A

- very unreactive/stable


Metalloids
Metalloids his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – BORDER THE STAIRSTEP LINE 

- Have similar chem & phys props as both metals

and nonmetals


Chapter 6 periodic table

Alkali metals his table didn’t fit right

Halogens

Noble Gases

Alkaline earth metals

Transition Metals

Lanthanides

Actinides


Organizing elements by electron configuration
Organizing Elements By Electron Configuration his table didn’t fit right

  • Valence Electron – electrons in highest energy level

atoms in same group have similar chemical

props b/c they have same # of valence e-


Valence electrons and period
Valence Electrons And Period his table didn’t fit right

  • The period indicates what energy level the valence electrons are located on

  • Ex: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1

3 Valence e-

on 4th energy

level


Valence electrons and group number
Valence Electrons and Group Number his table didn’t fit right

  • # of valence electrons equals group number (only for main group elements)

  • exception: Helium

(in group 18, but has

2 valence e- only)


Ex problems
Ex Problems his table didn’t fit right

  • Tell the group, period, and block where these elements are located

[Ne] 3s2

[He] 2s2 2p4

[Kr] 5s2 4d105p5

2

group –

period –

block –

group –

period –

block –

16

group –

period –

block –

17

3

2

5

s

p

p


Periodic trends
Periodic Trends his table didn’t fit right

  • There are certain patterns that occur with the elements as you go across and down the periodic table

    which atom is the biggest? smallest?

    which atom is most reactive/least stable?


Atomic radius size
Atomic Radius (size) his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – distance from center to edge of electron cloud

  • Period Trend – decreases from left to right

    Why?

    increasing # of protons (+ charge) in nucleus has a greater attraction for

    electrons (- charge)


Atomic radius
Atomic Radius his table didn’t fit right

  • Group Trend – increases from top to bottom

    Why?

    electrons occupy higher energy levels and are farther from the nucleus

Period 1

Period 2

Period 3


Atomic radius1
Atomic Radius his table didn’t fit right

  • Summary

decreases

increases


Chapter 6 periodic table
Ion his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – atom w/ a positive or negative charge

    - atom lost or gained electrons

    - # protons ≠ # electrons


Cation
Cation his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – positive ion (atom lost e-)

    - more protons than electrons

  • Comparing atom size vs. its cation size

A

A+

atom A

cation of atom A

cations are SMALLER than its original atom


Anion
Anion his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – negative ion (atom gained e-)

    - more electrons than protons

  • Comparing atom size vs. its anion size

A-

A

atom A

anion of atom A

anions are LARGER than its original atom


Ion summary
Ion Summary his table didn’t fit right

A-

A

A+

<

<

cation

atom

anion


Ionization energy
Ionization Energy his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – energy required to remove an electron from an atom

  • Period trend – IE increases from left to right

    Why?

    increased nucleus charge has greater hold on valence e-


Ionization energy1
Ionization Energy his table didn’t fit right

  • Group Trend – IE decreases from top to bottom

    Why?

    atomic size increases, valence e- are farther away so easier to remove (less energy required)


Chapter 6 periodic table

Period 1 his table didn’t fit right

Period 2

Period 3


Ionization energy2
Ionization Energy his table didn’t fit right

  • Summary

increases

decreases


Ex problem
Ex problem his table didn’t fit right

  • Rank these atoms from increasing to decreasing ionization energy: Ba, Cs, Cl

increases

decreases

Cl

Cs

Ba

Cl > Ba > Cs


Electronegativity
Electronegativity his table didn’t fit right

  • Defn – relative ability of an atom to attract electrons in a chemical bond

    “how badly does atom want electrons” while in a bond

  • Period Trend – increases from left to right

  • Group Trend – decreases from top to bottom


Electronegativity1
Electronegativity his table didn’t fit right

  • Summary

increases

decreases


Ex problem1
Ex problem his table didn’t fit right

  • Rank these atoms from high to low electronegativity: O, Sr, Mg

increases

decreases

Mg

O

Sr

O > Mg > Sr