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Dialogue types. GSLT course on dialogue systems spring 2002 Staffan Larsson. Inquiry- vs. action-oriented dialogue. Inquiry oriented dialogue (IOD) has the primary goal of exchanging information regardless of whether and how this information will be used in future actions

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Dialogue types

Dialogue types

GSLT course on dialogue systems

spring 2002

Staffan Larsson

Inquiry vs action oriented dialogue
Inquiry- vs. action-oriented dialogue

  • Inquiry oriented dialogue (IOD) has the primary goal of exchanging information

    • regardless of whether and how this information will be used in future actions

  • Action oriented dialogue (AOD) has the primary goal of a participant performing or being obliged to perform an action (or plan, i.e. a complex action)

Inquiry oriented dialogue
Inquiry-oriented dialogue

  • utterance types: ask, answer

  • Information-seeking dialogue: one DP asks the questions, the other answers them

  • Information-exchange (information oriented) dialogue: both DPs ask questions and provide answers

    • can be seen as a sequence of infoseeking dialogues, possibly with embedded subdialogues

Action oriented dialogue
Action-oriented dialogue

  • utterance types: request, confirm

  • In simple AOD, only one participant becomes obliged/comitted to some action or plan

  • Actions can either be performed ”online” while the dialogue is happening, or they may be stored as a plan to be performed after the dialogue (”offline”)

Negotiative dialogue
Negotiative dialogue

  • utterance types: suggest, accept, reject

  • What is it?

    • Negotiation is a type of problem-solving

    • Possible definition of negotiative dialogue: DPs discuss several alternative solutions to a problem before choosing one of them

  • Negotiation does not imply conflicting goals

    • perhaps not 100% correspondence to everyday use of the word “negotiation”, but useful to keep collaborativity as a separate dimension from negotiation

  • Both AOD and IOD can be negotiative

    • in a flight information service, the user does not become obliged to fly anywhere; so it’s IOD

    • but several different flights may be discussed

Negotiation tasks
Negotiation tasks

  • Some factors influencing negotiation

    • distribution of information between DPs (who knows what)

    • whether DPs must commit jointly (e.g. Coconut) or one DP can make the comittment (e.g. flight booking)

  • We’re initially trying to model negotiation in flight booking

    • sample dialouge

      • U: flights to paris on september 13 please

      • S: there is one flight at 07:45 and one at 12:00

      • U: what airline is the 12:00 one

      • S: the 12:00 flight is an SAS flight

      • U: I’ll take the 12:00 flight please

    • Sys provides alternatives, User makes the choice

    • Sys knows timetable, User knows when he wants to travel etc.

Degrees of negotiativity
Degrees of negotiativity

  • non-negotiative dialogue: only one alternative is discussed

  • semi-negotiative dialogue: a new alternative can be introduced by altering parameters of the previous alternative, but previous alternatives are not retained

  • negotiative dialogue: several alternatives can be introduced, and old alternatives are retained and can be returned to

Bdi agents
BDI: agents

  • What is needed for intelligent behaviour?

    • perception

    • Beliefs

    • Desires

    • planning and decistion making ability (deliberation)

    • Intentions

    • ability to act

  • To interact, also need social attitudes

    • common ground

    • obligations¨¨¨

    • committments

    • rights

From ai
from AI:

  • actions (e.g. buy a ticket) have

    • preconditions ( seller has ticket, buyer has money)

    • decomposition ( … )

    • effects

Bdi and speech acts
BDI and speech acts

  • ”normal” actions affect the external world

  • speech acts affect mental states of agents

    • i.e. their beliefs, desires, intentions, …

  • so, speech acts can be described in terms of preconditions and effects on mental states

  • ConvinceByInform(S, H, P) [Allen]

    • roles: S=speaker, H=hearer, P=proposition

    • precondition: bel(S, P)

    • effect: bel(H, P)

Later developments
later developments

  • Traum

    • incorporate social attitudes

    • model the fact that utterances are not always successful

  • initiate_assert(S, H, P)

    • precondition: int( S, mbel( S, H, P ) )

    • effect: bel( H, int( S, mbel( S, H, P ) ) )

  • acknowledge_assert( S, H, P )

    • precondition: bel( S, int( H, mbel( S, H, P )))

    • effect: mbel( S, H, P )