1 / 40

Populism & the Election of 1896

Populism & the Election of 1896. What were some of the major problems facing farmers during the Gilded Age ??. Can ’ t compete with corporate farms Reliance on cash crops Falling prices & overproduction Rising costs: expensive goods, Railroads rates, land taxes

Download Presentation

Populism & the Election of 1896

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Populism & the Election of 1896

  2. What were some of the major problems facing farmers during the Gilded Age ??

  3. Can’t compete with corporate farms Reliance on cash crops Falling prices & overproduction Rising costs: expensive goods, Railroads rates, land taxes Mortgage foreclosures and debts - want more $ in circulation Problems for Small Farmers

  4. Price Indexes for Consumer & Farm Products: 1865-1913

  5. The Silver Issue • “Crime of ’73” demonetization ofsilver. • Bland-Allison Act (1878)  limitedsilver coinage to $2-$4 mil. per month(16:1 ratio of silver to gold). • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) • The US Treasury must purchase$4.5 mil. oz. of silver a month. • BUT, deposited most silver in theUS Treasury rather than in circulation.

  6. Populism: An Agrarian Revolt

  7. Founder of the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry (1867)

  8. The Grange Movement • First organized in 1868. 1870s in the Midwest, the South, and Texas. • Set up “cooperative associations”. • Social and educational components. • Succeeded in lobbying for “Granger Laws.” - regulated railroad rates and grain storage • Rapidly declined by the late 1870s.

  9. Supreme Court Decisions • Munn v. Illinois (1877) - state may regulate railroads within state - farmers happy • “The Wabash Case”(1886) Wabash, St. Louis, & Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois - states can’t regulate interstate commerce - farmers sad

  10. The Farmers Alliances • Begun in the late 1880s (Texas first  Southern Alliance; Midwest  Northern Alliance). • 1 million members by 1890 • More political than the Grange - Ran candidates for office. • Controlled 8 state legislatures & had 47representatives in Congress during the 1890s. “Raise less corn and more hell!”

  11. United We Stand, Divided We Fall • In 1889 both the Northern andSouthern Alliancesmerged into one—the Farmers’ Alliance.

  12. The Populist (Peoples’) Party • Founded by James B. Weaverand Tom Watson. • Omaha Convention in July,1892. • Almost 1 million popularvotes. • Won Several Congressional seats James B. Weaver, Presidential Candidate &James G. Field, VP

  13. Omaha Platform of 1892 Expanded the earlier “Ocala Demands” of 1890 “Bimetalism” - free silver Replace National Bank with Government-operated postal savings banks. System of “sub-treasuries” Direct election of Senators. Australian secret ballot. A single term for President & Vice President. Gov. ownership of RRs, telephone & telegraph companies. Restriction of undesirable immigration. 8-hour work day for government employees. Abolition of the Pinkerton detective agency.

  14. Platform of Lunacy

  15. 1892 Election

  16. Bi-Metallism Issue

  17. The Panic of 1893

  18. Causes of the 1893 Panic • Begun 10 days after Cleveland took office. 1. Several major corps. went bankrupt (sparked by railroad overinvestment). • Over 16,000 businesses collapsed. • Triggered a stock market crash. • 2. Bank failures caused a contractionof credit - nearly 500 banks closed - panic! • 3. By 1895, unemployment - 3 million. • Americans cried out for relief, but the Government & Cleveland = laissez faire policies

  19. Here Lies Prosperity

  20. Coxey’s Army, 1894 • Jacob Coxey & his “Army of the Commonwealth of Christ.” • March on Washington  “hayseed socialists!” arrested for trespassing

  21. Result of 1894 Election • Populist voteincreased by40%. • Democratic party losses in the West werecatastrophic! • But, Republicanswon control of the House.

  22. The 1896 Election

  23. Gold / Silver Bug Campaign Pins

  24. William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) The “Great Commoner”

  25. William Jennings Bryan Prairie avenger, mountain lion, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Bryan, Gigantic troubadour, speaking like a siege gun, Smashing Plymouth Rock with his boulders from the West. • Revivalist style of oratory.

  26. Bryan’s“Cross of Gold” Speech “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon across of gold!”

  27. Bryan: The Farmers Friend(The Mint Ratio) 18,000 miles of campaign “whistle stops.”

  28. Democratic Party Taken Over by the Agrarian Left Platform  tariff reductions; income tax; strictercontrol of the trusts (esp. RRs); free silver.

  29. William McKinley (1843-1901)

  30. Mark Hanna: The “Front-Porch” Campaign

  31. Mark Hanna to Candidate McKinley

  32. “A Giant Straddle”: Suggestion for a McKinley Political Poster

  33. The Seasoned Politician vs. The “Young” Newcomer

  34. Into Which Box Will the Voterof ’96 Place His Ballot?

  35. 1896 Election Results

  36. Why Did Bryan Lose? • His focus on silver underminedefforts to build bridges to urbanvoters. • He did not form alliances withother groups. • McKinley’s campaign was well-organized and highly funded by big business $$$$$$$.

  37. Gold Triumphs Over Silver • 1900  GoldStandard Act • A victory for the forces ofconservatism.

  38. End of the stalemate and stagnation of Gilded Age Era of Republican dominance (7 of next 9 presidential elections and both Houses for 17 of next 20 sessions) as the party of business, industry and strong national government Demise of Populists - but many goals live on and will be adopted by Progressives & FDR Urban dominance of America Beginning of modern politics - media & $$$$ Why was the 1896 Election so significant?

More Related