Arctic is the area around the North Pole. • It consists of Arctic Ocean and parts of Canada, Russia, Greenland, Norway, United States, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. • The area of Arctic is 26 mil. km². • Arctic is predominantly frozen. • People living there are called Inuits.
Climate • Arcticclimateisaffected by coldseacurrents. Temperature • In winter (in July) between -40°C and -70°C. • In summer (in January) between -10°C and -40°C. • Averagetempatureisn‘t higherthan 10°C.
Icebergs • Icebergs are formed by fresh water. • It is very difficult to say how large the iceberg is because you can se only 1/10 of it. The rest is under water. • Icebergs can be 1 - 75 m high. • The average weight of pack ice is 100 000 and 200 000 tons. • The largest iceberg located in the North Atlantic was 168 m high. • Iceberg caused one of the most famous maritime disasters: in April 1912 about 1500 passengers and crew members died when Titanic crashed into the iceberg.
Typesoftheicebergs 1. CONTINENTAL • The continental iceberg is only in the Antarctic and Greenland now. 2. FLOATING • Gigantic piece of ice broken off the continental iceberg.
• Arctic icebergs are the largest reservoir of fresh water in the world. • The Arctic is also a unique natural system that balances the stability of the world's climate.
Flora • Arctic deserts are frozen however we can find some plants in the south. There are mosses, lichens, algae, mushrooms and bacteria in the Antarctic Continent.
Fauna We can also find some animals, especially penguins, seabirds, seals, plankton and lots of types of fish living there.
PROBLEMS !!! Icebergs are meltingfasterandfaster: in 1996 in Greenlandmelted 63 km3ofice, in 2005 italreadywas 162 km3!!! !!! Polarbears, seals and walrus are in the danger of their life !!! !!! The temperatureof water increased by 3oCin thewest of Arcticbutfishneedcolderwater !!! !!! Thesealevelishigherandhigher. Itcanflood islandsandlandwith a lowaltitude !!!