Chapter 16-Age of Exploration Scientific Revolution
Scientific revolution • From Magic to Science • Natural Philosophers: religious teachings + classical thought to explain the unexplainable • Roger Bacon: 1200s scientist & philosopher • Favored a system of experimentation as a means of finding truth (not faith) • Practiced alchemy – Dr. Mirabilis (wonderful teacher) • Scientific Revolution: • experiments & mathematics used to explain nature • Formed basis for what we know as science • Answered questions in physics, astronomy & anatomy
New study of nature • Scientists of 1500s question ancients • Form conclusions based on their own observations • 3 new tools to study • Scientific instruments: barometer, microscope, telescope, air pump & thermometer • Mathematics • Experimentation – repeated for consistency • Scientific Method
Astronomy, physics, anatomy • Astronomy • Study of stars, planets, and other bodies in the sky. • Physics: • Focused on changes and properties of matter and energy. • Anatonomy: • Studied structure of the human body. • Examining dead bodies
Theories • Ptolemy theory was known as the “geocentric theory” • “Earth centered”, Sun and planets moved around Earth. • Nicolaus Copernicus was known as the “heliocentric theory” • “sun centered”, sun was the center of the universe. • Many ignored this theory at first. • Did not have instruments or Math to prove his theory.
JohanneKepler • Mathematician that tests Copernicus’ theory by using • Models, observations, and mathematics. • Published laws of planetary motion in 1609. • Galileo Galilei • Built the telescope: made far away objects smaller. • Draws sketches of things he witnesses through telescope • Rings around Saturn, spots on the sun, moons circling Jupiter. • Publishes work and scholars and church disapprove • Ptolemy’s theory is right • Contradicts the bible • Proved Aristotle’s theory wrong that “heavier objects fall faster than lighter ones. • He wrote “if there is no friction from air, all objects fall at same rate.”
Isaac newton • Universal Gravitation • All bodies attract each other • Falling objects were really examples of law of universal grav. • Physics (laws of motion and gravity) • Math (invented Calculus • Astronomy: world moved not because of God, but because of laws of motion in the universe.
Newton’s three laws of motion • An object in motion tends to stay in motion, while an object at rest tends to stay at rest, unless acted upon by an outside force • When a force is applied to an object, it accelerates according to the equation a = F/m (a=acceleration,F=force,m=mass) • to every action there exists an equal and opposite reaction
Andreas Vesalius (Flemish Scientist) • Pioneered the study of anatomy • 1543 published On the Fabric of the Human Body • 7 Volume’s – amazing detail, visual understanding of how body works • William Harvey (English physician) • Studied circulation of blood • Described how blood moves through body. • Functions of the heart.
Rene Descartes • Published “Discourse on Method (1637) • Assumptions had to be proven on basis of known facts. • “I think, therefore I am.” • Geometry and algebra, scientific method, astronomy, and the physical sciences. • Light reflects from a smooth surface. • Francis Bacon • Theories could be developed through observation • No assumption could be trusted unless it could be proven by repeatable experiments. • Published “NovumOrganum”: demonstrate physically, not through just thinking and reasoning.
Others • Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek • Used microscope to discover bacteria “animalcules” • Wrote about tiny life forms that were never seen by human eye. • Robert Boyle • Developed chemistry: composition of matter and how it changes. • Temperature and pressure affect the space that a gas occupies. • Joseph Priestly • Discovered oxygen • Antoine Lavoisier names it oxygen • Showed fire resulted when substance combined withy oxygen. • Law of conservation of matter.