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Final Review

Final Review

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Final Review

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  1. Final Review

  2. Map Skills

  3. Mesopotamia

  4. Canaan/Israel

  5. Ancient Egypt

  6. Ancient Greece

  7. Ancient Rome

  8. Ancient China

  9. Ancient India

  10. Ancient China

  11. Chinese Society • major religions/philosophies are Buddhism, Legalism, and Daoism • Family is most important part of Chinese society • Chinese Feudal System dominated early China

  12. Chinese Feudal System • King and Relatives • Lords • Craftspeople • Traders • Farmers and Peasants • Slaves

  13. Shang Dynasty • Bronze (mixing tin and copper) weapons gave them an advantage • United the clans of China • Jade jewelry and sculptures • Ancestor worship • Logographs

  14. Qin Dynasty • Built the Great Wall • Ended Feudalism • Followed Legalism • Persecuted followers of Confucianism • Common laws, language, and currency throughout China • Ended feudalism • 6,000 Terra Cotta soldiers in emperor’s tomb

  15. Han Dynasty • Golden Age of China • Stable Government • Use of the Silk Road for trade and spreading of culture and ideas • Invented the bamboo drill, compass, silk loom, crossbow, kites, and seismography • Acupuncture, anesthesia, and astronomy

  16. Ancient Greece

  17. Greece (Geography) • Steep Rocky Mountains • Travel/communication was difficult • Isolated communities • Robbers/bandits in the mountains • Greece is a peninsula • Seaside communities depended on seas for a living • Seaside communities became excellent at fishing and shipbuilding

  18. Greece (Government) • Order • 1. Monarchy • 2. Oligarchy • 3. Tyranny • 4. Democracy

  19. Greece (Government) • Monarchy • Led by a king • King made the laws • King’s oldest son took over when he died • Advised by the Aristocrats

  20. Greece (Government) • Oligarchy • Led by a group of aristocrats • Small council made the laws that favored the rich • Rich became richer/poor became poor

  21. Greece (Government) • Tyranny • Led by a one person called a tyrant • Tyrant overthrew the oligarchy with military force • Promised better treatment of the poor • Eventually replaced by direct democracy

  22. Greece (Government) • Direct Democracy • eligible male citizen voted on every issue • Council of 500 chosen by random drawing to determine issues to vote on

  23. Greece (Family Life) • Athens • Education mostly boys in math, science, LA, public speaking • Women ran the household but had few rights • Sparta • Education for boys and girls in military training • Women had many of the same rights as men

  24. Greece (Religion) • Gods influenced every aspect of their lives (seas, harvest, wine,). • Olympic Games started to honor Greek god Zeus • Plays, drama, and theater were usually stories about one of the Greek gods/heroes • Greek gods adopted and changed by the Romans

  25. Greece (Persian Wars) • Greece Vs. Persia • Athens came to aid of Ionia colonies/angered Persians • All of Greece banded together and used better strategy to defeat the Persians • Four Main Battles: • Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea

  26. Greece (Contributions) • Homer: wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey • Three Philosophers: • Socrates • Greatest speaker of the Agora • taught using questions • Teacher of Plato • Plato: • taught using plays, drama, etc.. • Teacher of Aristotle • Aristotle: • work in mathematics and science • Teacher of Alexander the Great • U.S. • Democracy • Language (alphabet and words) • architecture

  27. Greece (Peloponnesian War) • Athens Vs. Sparta • Sparta eventually won • City-states weak from extended fighting • Alexander the Great conquers all of mainland Greece

  28. Greece (Alexander the Great) • Macedonian son of Phillip II • Taught by Aristotle • Conquered most of the known world • Died in Babylon • Empire split apart after his death • Accepted other religions and left local leaders in place to foster acceptance/cooperation by the people he conquered • Influence on Other Parts of the World • spread Greek culture throughout the known world • Roman gods • Roman architecture • Roman writing/stories • Philosophy

  29. Ancient Rome

  30. Ancient Rome (Social Classes) • Patrician • rich/upper class • Owned all the best land • Ran the government • Passed laws that favored the rich • Lived on large estates/villas in the country • Plebeian • Poor/lower class • Lived in small wooden apartments in the city • Unemployed or worked for rich • Some owned their own shops • Small farms in the country • Slaves • Hundreds of thousands from wars • Took many jobs away from the Plebeians • Forced to fight in the Gladiator games

  31. Ancient Rome (Stages) • Republic • Elected representatives • Run by the Senate with 2 Consuls • Produced 12 Tables • Eventually included Plebeians in the process • Dictatorship • Began by Julius Caesar • Took over using military force • Rome ruled by one person • Assassinated by Roman Senate • sent Rome into Civil War • led to the 1st Roman emperor • Empire/Emperor • Caesar Augustus: 1st Emperor • Started the Pax Romana (woo year period of peace throughout the Roman Empire) • Absolute authority in Rome • Eventually was viewed as a god by the Romans • Pax Romana was a 200 year period of peace throughout the Roman Empire

  32. Ancient Rome (Punic Wars) • 3 Wars fought between Rome and Carthage • Hannibal • most famous Carthage General • Used elephants • Roman victory led to control of the entire Mediterranean Sea region

  33. Rome (Government) • Senate • Formed by Patricians • Made all laws for Rome • Laws favored the Rich over the poor • Plebeians • Not allowed to participate for many years • Eventually won the right to pass and veto laws • Consul • 2 elected Patricians that ran the Senate • 12 Tables: first written code of laws

  34. Rome (Miscellaneous) • Achievements • Roads throughout the empire • Aqueducts for moving water • Arches for construction

  35. Rome (Miscellaneous) • Influences • U.S: • Senate is part of the Legislative Branch • Rule of Law • Trial by jury of your peers • Rule of Law

  36. Rome (Miscellaneous) • Entertainment • Coliseum: Gladiator Games • Circus Maximus: Chariot Races • Forum: center of activity in Rome

  37. Rome (Miscellaneous) • Christianity • Persecuted by many Roman emperors • Constantine • Converted to Christianity • Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire • Moved capital of Rome to Constantinople

  38. Rome (Decline) • Legal system was unfair • Emperors were above the law • People became complacent/lazy because of the “Bread and Circus” • Senate and other government officials were dishonest and corrupt • Outside invaders successfully attacked or conquered Roman Empire • Britannia: Rome withdraws (410 A.D.) • Huns capture Spain (452 A.D.) • Germanic Tribes conquer Rome (476 A.D.) • Barber Wars (536 A.D.) • Black Plague (1347 A.D.) • Ottoman Empire (1461 A.D.)