ERT 422/4 INTRODUCTION TO THE BOTTOM LINE PROCEDURES OF GENERALIZED BIOPROCESS VIEW - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ERT 422/4 INTRODUCTION TO THE BOTTOM LINE PROCEDURES OF GENERALIZED BIOPROCESS VIEW

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ERT 422/4 INTRODUCTION TO THE BOTTOM LINE PROCEDURES OF GENERALIZED BIOPROCESS VIEW
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ERT 422/4 INTRODUCTION TO THE BOTTOM LINE PROCEDURES OF GENERALIZED BIOPROCESS VIEW

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  1. ERT 422/4INTRODUCTION TO THE BOTTOM LINE PROCEDURES OF GENERALIZED BIOPROCESS VIEW MISS. RAHIMAH BINTI OTHMAN (Email: rahimah@unimap.edu.my)

  2. COURSE OUTCOMES

  3. GENERALIZED VIEW OF BIOPROCESS

  4. BOTTOM LINE REGULATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS • The Department of • Standards Malaysia • (Standards Malaysia) is the • national standardisation • and accreditation body. • The main function; • - to foster and promote • standards, standardisation • & accreditation, promoting • industrial efficiency and development, benefiting • the health and safety of • the public, protecting the • consumers, facilitating • domestic and international • trade and furthering • international cooperation • in relation to standards • and standardisation. ECONOMICS • Capital cost, capital • investment, or capital • expenditure of a • bioprocess facility is the • total amount of money • that has to be spent to • supply the necessary plant • (the fixed capital • investment) plus the • working capital that is • needed for the operation • of the facility. • Ref. Book: Peters et al. • (2003), Perry’s Handbook • (1997), Atkinson & • Mavituna (1991). • Purpose (Environmental • Issues) : to identify the • environmental “hot spots” • of the process. • That means it should draw • attention to those • materials or process steps • that cause most of the • potential environment • burden. • Purpose (Safety • Consideration) : prevention • of working accidents, • occupational diseases, or • work caused dangers to • health.

  5. Safety REGULATIONS Environment

  6. REGULATIONS The Department of Environment (DOE) under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment has been given the onus of monitoring and enforcing environmental standards in Malaysia. Environmental management is conducted at the federal level by the Department of Environment (DOE) of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. - Its main objective is to administer and enforce the Environmental Quality Act, 1974 (Amendments 1985, 1996), and the Section of the Economic Exclusive Zone Act, 1984.

  7. REGULATIONS Strategies for Environmental Improvement Within the EQA (ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT), there are several progressive provisions that can contribute to pollution prevention: The prescription for the reduction, recycling, recovery, or regulation of specified hazardous substances (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section 30A); The prescription of minimum percentages of recycled substances for specified products, and the labelling of such with declarations on recycled constituents as well as methods of manufacture and disposal (eco-labelling) (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section 30A); The prescription of rules on deposit and rebate schemes to ensure environmentally sound recycling or disposal of specified products (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section 30B); The provision for environmental audits to be conducted, irrespective of whether the operator is operating out of prescribed premises (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part IV, section 33A); and The right to impose a “research cess” on wastes to finance research into any aspect of pollution or prevention (EQA (1974) Act 127, Part VA, section 36A).

  8. REGULATIONS

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION Air Wastewater Hazardous/Solid Waste Facility and Operation

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION Air Wastewater Hazardous/Solid Waste Facility and Operation

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION • TheDepartment of Environment (DOE) initiated the development of Receiving Water Quality criteria for Malaysia in 1985 which aimed at developing a water quality management approach for the long term water quality of the nation's water resources. • The approach recommended that Malaysian rivers be classified according to the six classes and described in Table 1.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION Wastewater Table 1 - Receiving Water Quality (from Interim Water Quality Standard, INWQS)

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION Wastewater – cont’

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION Wastewater – cont’ Discharge Quality Standard The effluent quality of any discharge from a sewage treatment process to an inland water (that is, other than one having an ocean outlet) shall meet the minimum requirements of the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and the limits set down by the Environmental Quality (Sewage Industrial Effluent Regulations, 1979 which are presented in Table 2. Note:Standard A criteria applies only to catchments areas located upstream of drinking water supply off-takes.

  15. Wastewater – cont’

  16. Hazardous/Solid Waste A hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. There are four factors that determine whether or not a substance is hazardous: • Ignitability (i.e., flammable) • Corrosovity • Reactivity • Toxicity

  17. Hazardous/Solid Waste • A Solid Wasteis any discarded material which is: • Abandoned • Recycled • Inherently Waste-Like • Materials are solid waste if they are abandonedby being: • Disposed of • Burned or Incinerated • Accumulated, stored, or treated (but not recycled) before or in lieu of being abandoned by being disposed of, burned, or incinerated

  18. Hazardous/Solid Waste – cont’ • Materials are solid waste if they are recycled - or accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling - by being: • Used in a manner constituting disposal • Burned for energy recovery • Reclaimed • Accumulated Speculatively

  19. The Material Is A Solid Waste???

  20. Is It A Hazardous Waste?

  21. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE

  22. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

  23. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

  24. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

  25. INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION PROCESS EXAMPLE – cont’

  26. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  27. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

  28. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  29. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  30. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  31. Safety CONSIDERATIONS In Malaysia, the health and safety of employees, is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). * Comparison of Three Risk Measurement.

  32. Safety CONSIDERATIONS Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

  33. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  34. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  35. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  36. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES & SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS

  37. ECONOMICS

  38. Steps in the estimation of capital investment and operating costs.. ECONOMICS BIOENGINEERING Conversion, yield Process Flow Diagram Volume/mass of product Raw materials Equipment prices Utilities/ waste Purchase equipment cost Labor Consumables Multipliers Operating cost Capital investment

  39. ECONOMICS EXPECTED OUTCOMES How much money (capital cost) it takes to build a new plant. How much money (operating cost) it takes to operate a plant. How to combine (1) and (2) to provide several distinct types of composite values reflecting process profitability. How to select the best process from competing alternatives. How to estimate the economic value of making process changes and modification to an existing processes. How to quantify uncertainty when evaluating the economic potential of a process.

  40. ECONOMICS

  41. ECONOMICS

  42. ECONOMICS

  43. ECONOMICS

  44. Thank you Prepared by, MISS RAHIMAH OTHMAN