Comparing Plant and Animal Cells OCS Biology Mrs. Bonifay
Plant Cells vs Animal Cells:Similarities • Both animal and plant cells have cell membranesthat enclose the cell. • Both are filled with cytoplasm, a gel-like substance containing chemicals needed by the cell. • Both have a nucleuswhere DNA is stored. • Both have ribosomes, protein builders of cells.
Similarities Continued • Both plant and animal cells have mitochondriathat use oxygen to break down food and release energy. • Both kinds of cells have vacuolesthat contain food, water, or waste products. (Animal cells usually have many more vacuoles than plant cells do.)
A Few More Similarities • Both have endoplasmic reticulum, where a system of tubes transports proteins. • Both have Golgi bodies to distribute proteins outside of the cell.
Plant and Animal Cells:Differences • Plant cells have cell walls that provide structure. Animal cells do not have cell walls. • A few large animal cells have more than one nucleus, but plant cells ALWAYS have just one. • Plant cells have chloroplastsfor photosynthesis. Animal cells do not.
More Differences: • Animal cells use mitochondria for energy production. Plants primarily use chloroplasts to produce energy. • Animal cells tend to have many small vacuoles. Mature plant cells may have only one large vacuole. • Animals cells have lysosomes,but plant cells do not.
Cells & Energy • Cells get energy originally from the sun. • In plant cells, chloroplasts trap light energy and change it into chemical energy. • The chemical energy is stored in bonds between atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. • Atoms are the basic unit of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Cells & Energy (continued!) • Chemical bonds hold two or more atoms together to form molecules of sugar. • Both plant and animal cells break down these molecules by breaking the chemical bond. When the bonds are broken, energy is released. • Cells can either use the energy or store it. • Mitochondria in plant and animal cells use oxygen to release this energy.
Cells & Energy (more!) • Cells store energy from food in ATP molecules. When the cell needs energy, the ATP is broken down to release it.
Cells Using Information • The nucleus is the control center of plant and animal cells. • The nucleus contains DNA. • DNA and RNA molecules work together to make proteins. Cells require thousands of protein molecules in order to work well.
More DNA • DNA in a cell’s nucleus determines what kind of cell it it. • DNA has instructions for all of the cell’s activities. • DNA doubles when a cell divides.