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Sampling and Associated Technologies
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  1. Sampling and Associated Technologies

  2. Agenda • Equipment and Connectivity Setup • Overview of Sampling and Related VST / AU Applications • Recording Considerations • Storage and Retrieval Issues • Sample-based Software DAW Applications

  3. The Setup: Audio Hardware, DAW, Speakers

  4. Audio Interface

  5. Legacy Sound Card Line-in Microphone-in Line-out Speaker-out Game / midi port

  6. PCI Sound Card

  7. Sound Card with Digital I/O

  8. Drivers!

  9. Drivers for USB Devices? Some USB devices are ‘compliant’ i.e. no drivers required to work with Windows OS or Mac OSX

  10. Line v Speaker Connections • Speaker output signal usually has volume, bass and treble modifications - poorer quality for recording • Line connectors provide a neutral signal without any added amplification (gain) or equalization, i.e. ‘flat’

  11. Audio Recording Considerations Audio waveform with appropriate recording level set Audio waveform with recording level too high resulting in ‘clipping’ of the waveform edges (distortion)

  12. iLOK aka Dongle : software licences stored on this device original current

  13. Pedals and Foot Switches

  14. Foot Switch (Sustain Pedal) This model is just a switch i.e. on or off Some models have 0-127 settings – the virtual instrument must also support this facility

  15. Overview of Sampling • Sampling is the process of recording real sound as an audio clip (sample) that can be played back as a tone (voice) in a music device • These sounds may be natural environment sounds or more typically they are recordings of real instruments • The process of sampling real instruments usually requires lengthy and detailed professional recording sessions to accurately reproduce the timbre of the real instrument for the audio sample • Many factors must be considered in the recording of the instrument to enable the individual nuances of the acoustic instrument to be authentically represented.

  16. Sampling Considerations : Piano 88 individual notes Note Volume Note Length Chords Polyphony String Resonance Sustain Resonance Soft Pedalling (Uno Corda) Microphone Positioning

  17. Sampling Considerations: Orchestral Note range of acoustic instrument Note volume Note length Articulations (expressive play)

  18. Sampling Considerations: Snare Drum ‘Stick sound’ Zone ‘Rim Shot’ Material - various types of wood or metal

  19. VST / AU Sampled-based Software Applications VST = Virtual Studio Technology (Windows) AU = Audio Units (OSX)

  20. Steinway Piano Virtual Instrument

  21. Drum Kit Virtual Instrument Toon Track: EZdrummer

  22. Electronic drum kit with mainly ‘pad’ drum heads

  23. Electronic drum kit with ‘mesh’ drum heads Toon Track: EZdrummer

  24. System Requirements • Audio samples will be of a specific resolution e.g. 16 bit or 24 bit • Higher resolution require faster data transfer rate and larger storage requirements. • Hard Drive spin speeds will impact on transfer rates • Need at least 7200 RPM - most laptops are 500 RPM • Best results are from external device such as USB 3.0 or Firewire drives • Firewire 400 and 800 better at handling continuous transfers needed for sampling. Firewire 800 better if available. • Latency

  25. Transfer Rates Compared • Firewire400 Mbps (400 Million Bits Per Second) • Firewire800 = 800 Mbps • USB 2.0 = 480 Mbps • SATA 3 (Hard Drives) • USB 3.0 a potential of around 5 Gigabits per second (Gbps)

  26. External Hard Drive (Lacie)

  27. Virtual Mixing Desk Reason Reason is a sample-based virtual software instrument Instrument Tracks Reason has an excellentcollection of orchestral samples Reason can run inside a host application, e.g. Logic Studio, as a ‘Rewire’ application Transport Controls

  28. References BFD Drums Ivory Pianos Roland Reason