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Perspective. The Illusion of Depth in ART.

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slide2

The creation of depth in paintings started around the time of the early Renaissance. Artists created drawings and painting that had overlapping shapes, objects of different sizes and placements, and even used variations of color and detail to create the illusion of depth.

Another form of creating depth was discovered during the early Renaissance as well. This is now called “linear perspective”. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), arguably the most important Italian Architect of all time, is credited with the discovery.

Sculpture of Brunelleschi: placed to have him looking at one of his greatest architectural creations.

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slide3

Perspective has to do with creating the illusion of depth and volume in art works created on a two-dimensional surface.

The next six slides will give you examples of these types. They are: Overlapping; Size; Placement; Detail; Color; and Linear Perspective, which has to do with converging lines on the horizon.

Most of this presentation will have to do with linear perspective. Linear Perspective is essentially “visual mathematics”, but don’t let that scare you. It can be a lot of fun. It is also science oriented. “Why,” you ask? Because this discovery allows the artist to create objects on a two-dimensional surface in the same way that our eyes view the world.

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Art Work by: Tony Haslam

overlapping
Overlapping

I am the 2nd object.

I am the 1st object.

This is done when one object covers part of another object. This creates the illusion that the first object is closer than the second.

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slide5
Size

In size, larger objects seem closer than smaller objects. In life, this is how objects appear. The farther away they are, the smaller they appear.

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placement
Placement

Objects placed low in a picture plane appear to be closer than objects placed at or near eye level.

Picture plane: The surface area of a painting or drawing.

Foreground: Objects seem closer and are located at the bottom.

Middle ground: The area between the foreground and background.

Background: Objects seem farther away and are located above the foreground.

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detail
Detail

Objects with clear , sharp edges and show a lot of detail appear to be close to you. Objects that seem hazy and lack detail seem farther away.

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color
Color

Objects that have colors that are brighter appear closer, and objects with dull colors seem farther away. Again this is true in life and is how we see things. This is caused by dust and moisture in the air which we call “haze”.

A better term for color perspective is “Atmospheric Perspective”.

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linear perspective

Linear Perspective

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linear perspective terms and definitions
Linear PerspectiveTerms and Definitions
  • Linear Perspective – A graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface. Objects appear three dimensional on a two dimensional surface.
  • One-Point Linear Perspective - A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object facing the viewer are parallel to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to a single vanishing point.
  • Two-Point Linear Perspective - A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object facing the viewer are at an angle to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to two vanishing points.
  • Three-Point Linear Perspective - A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object facing the viewer are at an angle to the to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to three vanishing points.
  • Horizon line - This line is drawn across the page and represents the eye level of the viewer. The height of the horizon line changes depending on the viewer’s height. This changes the view of the subject.
  • Parallel lines - Two lines that are the same distance from one another and will never intersect.
  • Vanishing point - Imaginary points on the horizon line in 1 pt. and 2 pt. perspective. Convergent lines all rise or fall to the vanishing point (or points).
  • Convergent lines - Parallel lines that appear to come together towards a single vanishing point.

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slide11

The interior of Santo Spirito was designed by Filippo Brunelleschi and construction began around 1436. Filippo Brunelleschi is considered the father of Renaissance architecture; credited with the discovery of linear perspective; and is even credited by many as the father of the Renaissance.

Notice this photograph was taken with a one-point linear perspective view.

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slide12

We see life in perspective and therefore should create art using linear perspective.

This is what made the masters, such as DaVinci, Michelangelo, Donatello, and

Rafael become “The Masters”. Of course later they became famous Ninja Turtles too.

Notice this photograph was taken

From a two-point linear perspective view

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slide13

The Horizon Line is always at eye level, or in other words, from the perspective of where you are looking. For that purpose, the horizon is somewhat imaginary, and not the real horizon where the earth meets the sky.

Q: Is this photographs perspective one or two point?

A: One Point

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one point linear perspective horizon line

IT’S RIGHT HERE……SEE IT?

DO YOU?

One Point Linear PerspectiveHorizon line

When you begin using the most basic type of linear perspective, one point linear perspective, always know where your horizon line is. This basic principle will continue though all forms of linear perspective. The horizon line should go all the way across your paper.

Now to create your first object using one point linear perspective. After drawing your horizon line, draw a box somewhere below the horizon line, although the box can be on or above the horizon line as well.

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one point linear perspective

Horizon Line

One Point Linear Perspective

Vanishing Point

Now that you have a horizon line and a box, determine where you want the vanishing point to be. You will use this vanishing point for all objects you create using one point linear perspective.

Next, using a ruler (or some type of straight edge), lightly draw lines (convergent lines) from the vanishing point to the corners of the box. Remember, draw lightly because you will erase these lines later.

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one point linear perspective1

One Point Linear Perspective

Next, decide where you want the back side of the box to be. You will do this by drawing a vertical line along the left side of the box since we see the left side of the box, and a horizontal line across the top of the box since we see the top of the box.

Q: Why do we see the top of the box?

Q: Why do we see the left side of the box and not the right side of the box?

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one point linear perspective2

One Point Linear Perspective

Next, decide where you want the back side of the box to be. You will do this by drawing a vertical line along the left side of the box since we see the left side of the box, and a horizontal line across the top of the box since we see the top of the box.

Q: Why do we see the top of the box? A: Because it is below the horizon.

Q: Why do we see the left side of the box and not the right side of the box? A: Because the box is to the right of the vanishing point.

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one point linear perspective3

One Point Linear Perspective

You did it. You made a box.

Now fill in the areas that create the top and left side of the box. You don’t really have to add color or value to those areas, but I did for the visual effect.

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two point linear perspective1

VP1Horizon Line VP2

Two Point Linear Perspective

As before, begin with a horizon line. This time create two vanishing points, as far apart as possible. This will allow you to put many objects within the two vanishing points. You can even use additional paper extensions to extend the vanishing points off the edge of the drawing.

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two point linear perspective2

VP1Horizon Line VP2

Two Point Linear Perspective

Time to make a box.

Create convergent lines from each vanishing point to position your box. Watch what we do next to define the corners of your box.

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two point linear perspective4

Two Point Linear Perspective

With the two walls added, the box starts to take shape.

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two point linear perspective5

Two Point Linear Perspective

TOP

Bottom

Now with the two back sides added and the bottom thrown in, we’ve created an open box.

With a click, I drop the top on and I have an enclosed box. It’s really easy.

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two point linear perspective6

Two Point Linear Perspective

Let’s put a very simple pyramid roof top on this box and make it look like an old German style house. First find the center of the top of the box by drawing lines from corner to corner. Then, draw a vertical line from the center. All that is left do decide is how tall you want the roof top to be.

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two point linear perspective7

Two Point Linear Perspective

See how simple it can be with a little practice.

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two point linear perspective8

VP1Horizon Line VP2

Two Point Linear Perspective

How to make a pyramid.

Once again create convergent lines from each vanishing point to position the pyramid.

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two point linear perspective9

VP1Horizon Line VP2

Two Point Linear Perspective

Now find the center.

Put a vertical line off of the center line.

Now, once you’ve decided how tall you want your pyramid, add in the walls. Here are the back two.

Now here are the front two. Ta-dah!!! A pyramid.

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two point linear perspective10

Two Point Linear Perspective

The Pitch Roof:

First create a two point linear perspective box. Once you have done that, you must decide which direction you want the roof to go. In this drawing, I’ve decided to have the roof run toward the right vanishing point. The first thing I must do is find the center of the front left and back left walls. Next I decide how high I want to make the roof. It doesn’t matter, and when you do it, just make it the height that looks good to you.

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two point linear perspective11

Two Point Linear Perspective

The Pitch Roof:

Now you draw the two triangle shaped ends of the pitch roof.

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two point linear perspective12

Two Point Linear Perspective

The Pitch Roof:

Now fill in the main part of the roof. Once you have erased the convergent lines you have created your house; but why stop here.

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two point linear perspective13

Two Point Linear Perspective

Why not add in windows, doors, and maybe even a chimney. It’s all very easy if you just

follow the rules.

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three point linear perspective
Three Point Linear Perspective

Vanishing point 3 or VP3

3 point is done exactly like 2 point. The only difference is the 3rd point alters the vertical lines you create in 2 point for the sides of your objects. All of the vertical lines must come from the 3rd point.

VP1

VP2

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three point linear perspective1
Three Point Linear Perspective

This is the simplest way to create 3 point linear perspective. You can be very creative

and very complex. Start with the objects that are closest to you.

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three point linear perspective2
Three Point Linear Perspective

Are you getting the idea? You can put objects anywhere within your three points.

The next slide will show you how a simple idea can still look pretty cool.

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slide41

Now let’s look at a simple one point linear perspective idea that looks like it’s not easy.

Put your vanishing point in the center of the paper and add intersecting lines that create a spoke effect as you see here. You might also add in the two horizontal and parallel lines to imagine where a street below might be.

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slide42

Step two is to draw in the front of your buildings. Notice how they appear to rise toward an imaginary sky.

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slide43

Step 3: Add in the tops of the buildings using vertical lines, then bring in the back of the building from your vanishing point.

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slide46

The END

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403

Linear Perspective is fun.

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