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GINA –GNSS FOR INNNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS-. The adoption of EGNOS/GALILEO for RUC and VAS for the Road Sector ITS World Congress, Busan 2010 1 st October 2010 Brussels. CONTENTS. PREPARATORY MEETING FOR WORKSHOP#1. GINA concept GINA exhaustive trial findings:

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GINA –GNSS FOR INNNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS-

The adoption of EGNOS/GALILEO for RUC and VAS for the Road Sector

ITS World Congress, Busan 2010

1st October 2010

Brussels

contents
CONTENTS

PREPARATORY MEETING FOR WORKSHOP#1

  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 2

the gina project
THE GINA PROJECT
  • FP7 project, co-financed by EC under 1st Galileo Call
  • FP7 GALILEO Call 1, Topic GALILEO-2007-1.1-01 Innovative GNSS-based Road Applications
  • Not another proof of concept: large scale demonstrator of a GNSS-based RUC & VAS scheme using the Dutch ABvM system and requirements defined by real end users as a reference
  • Project schedule: 24 months
  • GINA main OBJECTIVES:
    • Analysis of context of a nation-wide GNSS-based RUC (and VAS) with especial emphasis on market and business potential
    • Trials: Dutch ABvM as a reference
    • A solid dissemination strategy

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

the gina consortium
THE GINA CONSORTIUM
  • Consortium covering the whole value chain

GINA - GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

the use of position integrity in road pricing
ErrorTHE USE OF POSITION INTEGRITY IN ROAD PRICING
  • Use of Geo-fencing process based on POSITION INTEGRITY to ensure reliability of Road User Charging scheme) (concept introduced for Civil Aviation SoL for which EGNOS is designed)
  • Computation of position + bounding of position error (with a very high probability ~99.99%)
  • Vehicle charged only when 1 or more PLs (=error boundaries) totally inside the geo-object=> geo-fencing based on PLs (not just on calculated position).
  • Highly reliable geo-fencing process precluding wrong identifications

GINA - GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

gina trials overview
GINA TRIALS OVERVIEW
  • Large-scale demonstrator at national scale (in the Netherlands) for RUC and VAS
  • OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate how and with what performance European GNSS infrastructure (e.g. EGNOS) and other innovative GNSS-based technologies (e.g. use of position integrity) can enhance RUC schemes based on satellite positioning.

2 trials levels:

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

contents1
CONTENTS

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 7

exhaustive trials context i
EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (I)
  • 3 configurations of OBUs to assess performance (all of them implementing the described “GINA solution”):
  • Assessment of performancesby comparing system outputs and truth (thanks to a highly sophisticated trajectography system):
    • Charging

Performance of distance measurement

Performance of Geo-Objects identification (wrong /mis- ID, distance accuracy within geo-objects)

    • GNSS positioning performance (accuracy, integrity, availability)
  • 2 campaigns: GMV vehicle (main source of data)

Navteq vehicle (a different approach)

CANBUS (odometer) is only used for distance calculation and is not part of the positioning solution

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

exhaustive trials context ii
EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (II)
  • Campaign: 5th March 2010 to 5th April 2010
  • 3 test routes: realistic and challenging for GNSS

Route 1 – Motorway, urban Route 2 – Urban Route 3 – Urban, motorway

AmsterdamTheHague Rotterdam

Large motorway section with some small roads in urban environment. Some tunnels

Large number of narrow streets and numerous turns in urban roads

Urban roads. Some tall buildings and urban canyons. Some tunnels

  • ≥20 repetitions per route => statistically significant results
  • Fully operational smart OBU with real time capabilities
  • For better analysis flexibility (3 configurations) raw data registered in OBU and post-processed

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

exhaustive trials context iii
EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (III)

Highway scenario

  • Performances in a non-urban environment have been also evaluated, analyzing a highway segment of 10 km.
  • A huge amount of data has been collected. Additional specific cases of interest for RUC can be isolated and further analyses possible.

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

exhaustive trials context iv
EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS CONTEXT (IV)
  • Some figures

All anticipated routes completed the required number of times

Some routes performed additional times where possible

Large amount of data generated

All data successfully recorded and stored

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

contents2
CONTENTS

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 12

slide13
GEO-OBJECTS DETECTION (1/2)
  • OFFICIALGeo-Objects (very similar totheonesused in ABvMtrials)
    • Cordon areas
    • Highway segments
  • (Challengingscenarios, such as parallelroadswerepart of thegeo-objectslistincluded in theroutes)
  • CHALLENGINGGeo-Objects
    • Small Geo-Objects, especiallyinside urban areas, tunnels
    • AreaGeo-Objects (e.g.nestedgeo-objects of differentsizes in orderto determine geo-objectidentification performance as a function of thegeo-objectsize)

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

slide14
GEO-OBJECTS DETECTION (2/2)

Key performance for any charging scheme

  • A discrete variable:
    • Correct detection
    • or
    • Mis-detection (i.e. undetected although it actually took place)
    • Wrong detection (i.e. detected although it actually did not take place).
  • 100% Official Geo-Objects detected by all OBU configurations
  • 0% wrong identification of ALL Geo-Objects (official & challenging) thanks to the use of GINA geofencing technique, based on position integrity => key to protect users against overcharging!
  • In a discrete RUC system this would imply 0% charging error

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

distance based charging performance highway scenario
DISTANCE-BASED CHARGING PERFORMANCE. HIGHWAY SCENARIO.
  • Mean charging deviation between -0.07% and -0. 15% over all journeys.
  • Maximum overcharging (for 99% of journeys) smaller than:
    • 0.39% for GPS only solution
    • 0.22% for EGNOS + CANBUS solution

Charging error (%) density function

Charging error (%) cumulative distribution

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

distance based charging performance all journeys
DISTANCE-BASED CHARGING PERFORMANCE. ALL JOURNEYS.
  • Mean charging deviation between -0.44% and -0.57% over all journeys.
  • Overcharging (for 95% of journeys) smaller than:
    • 1.01% for GPS only solution
    • 0.23% for EGNOS+CANBUS solution

Charging error (%) density function

In addition, 0% of overcharging can be guaranteed with very high probability if applying integrity techniques to the distance measurement but at the expenses of increasing the average charging error to about -1% (in line with ABvM specs).

Charging error (%) cumulative distribution

PRESENTATION TITLE VERDANA (9)

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

contents3
CONTENTS

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 17

distance accuracy
DISTANCE ACCURACY
  • CANBUS odometer improves distance performance
  • Mean distance error (either absolute or journey-based) is below 0.3% for all solutions (0.05% with CANBUS)

Distance error (%) density function

A Distance-based Charging scheme could benefit from a connection to a CANBUSalthough “GNSS only” solution provides satisfactory performances

Distance error (%) cumulative distribution

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

gnss positioning performance highway scenario
GNSS POSITIONING PERFORMANCE. HIGHWAY SCENARIO.
  • Position errors much smaller
  • 3m position error (at 95%) with EGNOS.
  • EGNOS provides substantial accuracy improvement in “clean environments” (reduced multipath)

Horizontal position error cumulative distribution

  • All Protection levels less than 7m 50% of the time
  • EGNOS based PL smaller than 15 m 99% of the time
  • EGNOS improves integrity performances in “clean environments”
  • EGNOS integrity risk 3x10-4 in clean environments (RAIM integrity risk 1x10-3 in all scenarios)

Horizontal protection level cumulative distribution

26/10/2014

Page 19

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

contents4
CONTENTS
  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 20

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

key findings of exhaustive trials 1 4
KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (1/4)

CHARGING PERFORMANCES

  • 100% Official Geo-Objects detected
  • 0% wrong identification of ALL Geo-Objects (official & challenging) thanks to the use of GINA geo-fencing technique, based on position integrity
  • For a discrete RUC system this would imply 0% charging error
  • Distance based mean charging deviation in line with expected performances based on ABvM in all scenarios; much better in highway scenario

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

key findings of exhaustive trials 2 4
KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (2/4)
  • POSITIONING PERFORMANCE
    • ACCURACY: The configuration using EGNOS was the most accurate for the 99th percentile and also had the lowest maximum position error. In addition, in highway scenario EGNOS improves susbtantially accuracy (from 6 to 3 m at 95%).
    • RAIM techniques: Urban environments introduce large errors due to local effects. GNSS can benefit from RAIM techniques. In particular, RAIM integrity is the most suitable for the GINA proposed solution (geofencing based on position integrity).

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICAITONS

key findings of exhaustive trials 3 4
KEY FINDINGS OF EXHAUSTIVE TRIALS (3/4)
  • ENVIRONMENT (urban/highway) substantially affects performance but good results can be achieved in all scenarios.
  • GINA SOLUTION (geofencing based on integrity) plays a key role for a reliable (protecting the user) detection of Geo-objects
  • CANBUS (odometer) role: decrease distance errors by a factor of 5 to 10 but GNSS only solutions seem enough for foreseable requirements
  • Appropriate definition of Geo-objects is relevant for optimising charging performances
  • Proposed technology provides a valid solution for road/urban and different charging schemes (continuous/discrete) fulfilling the expected performances

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

contents5
CONTENTS

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 24

gina end2end trials
GINA. END2END TRIALS
  • OBJECTIVES
    • Functionality/usage analysis: Overall assessment of capabilities of the system from different perspectives
        • Capability to generate invoices,
        • Evaluation of drivers reaction and feedback,
        • Provisioning of added-value services (PAYD, traffic information generation…)
        • Mobility-related issues
        • etc.
    • Data analysis: exhaustive performance analysis for those variables with no need of a reference system
        • Capability of getting repeatable results for same conditions
        • Variability of average cost per km in different geo-objects and circumstances
        • Etc.

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

gina end2end trials1
GINA. END2END TRIALS
    • The DRIVERS => 100 volunteers
  • Automaticdownloading of data recordedtoPalviewGMV’splatform, making data availableforanalysis
  • No post-processing: geo-objectsdefinedconsideringdrivinghabits of drivers and programmedintoOBUs(cordons + segments)
  • On-going. UntilDecember 2010

Confidential

Confidential

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

gina end2end trials2
GINA. END2END TRIALS
  • 4 Municipalities identified as charging zones – large geo-objects
    • Utrecht
    • Den Haag
    • Rotterdam
    • Nijmegen

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

gina end2end trials3
GINA. END2END TRIALS
  • The TOOLS

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

contents6
CONTENTS

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICAITONS

  • GINA concept
  • GINA exhaustive trial findings:
      • Context and general description
      • Charging related performances
      • Distance and position performances
      • Key-findings
  • GINA end-to-end trial status
  • Conclusions

26/10/2014

Page 29

conclusions 1 2
CONCLUSIONS (1/2)

GINA: a step beyond in introduction of EGNOS / GALILEO in RUC and VAS

The GNSS technology is subject to intrinsic errors and requires specific mechanisms to ensure a reliable charging.

GINA proposes the use of position integrity as the way to ensure charging reliability.

Not another proof-of-concept: Large scale demonstrator

Trials:

Exhaustive trials: GNSS performance analysis

End2End trials: overall assessment from service perspective

Great amount of data. Realistic scenario, realistic conditions and valuable feedback from drivers experimenting system in operational conditions

GINA: GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

conclusions 2 2
CONCLUSIONS 2/2
  • Exhaustive trial results confirmed that GNSS is a

reliable tool for different RUC schemes.

  • GINA proposed technology allows distance charging
  • with good performances and a simple, affordable solution.
  • European GNSS (e.g. EGNOS) and other GNSS centered
  • techniques improve performances and reliability
  • Additional analyses are in progress for E2E trial results.
  • They will be presented in next GINA workshop (Q1 2011)

GINA – GNSS FOR INNOVATIVE ROAD APPLICATIONS

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Thank you!

Fiammetta Diani GSA - [email protected]

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