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Heredity. FADTP 4-1. We are learning to explain that diversity of species is developed through gradual processes over many generations. We are looking for how a species has changed to adapt to survive in its environment as evidenced by fossil records and present day organisms. Darwin.

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Heredity


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    1. Heredity

    2. FADTP 4-1

    3. We are learning to explain that diversity of species is developed through gradual processes over many generations. • We are looking for how a species has changed to adapt to survive in its environment as evidenced by fossil records and present day organisms.

    4. Darwin • Darwin’s observations included diversity of living things, remains of ancient organisms, and characteristics of organism on the Galapagos Islands.

    5. Evolution • The gradual change in a species over time.

    6. Adaptation • A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.

    7. Diversity • Differences among species. • Diversity among species. • Species is a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring.

    8. Fossils • A fossil is the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past.

    9. What is an adaptation? • A change in DNA • An over production of offspring • A competition between two members of the same species • A modification in a species for survival • I need help. 0 of 28 10

    10. Which of the following is true about the rate of evolution for most species? • Evolution can occur over a weekend • Evolution occurs in several months • Evolution occurs over one year • Evolution occurs over millions of years • I need help! 0 of 28 10

    11. If trees grew taller over time, what physical characteristics of giraffe would allow them to survive? • Thick neck • Thin neck • Long neck • Short neck • I need help! 0 of 28 10

    12. Which of the following is a result of adaptations over a long period of time? • Diversity within a species. • Similarity within a species. • Extinction of a species. • I need help! 0 of 28 10

    13. Focused Free Write • Write a paragraph on how an animal or plant (fictional or nonfictional) has adapted to the environment and changed or evolved over a period of time in order to survive.

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    19. FADTP 4-2

    20. We are learning to: explain how variations in an organism allow it to reproduce successfully and survive in a particular environment. • We are looking for: the following variations: • How the organism is put together (structure) • How the organism acts (behavior) • What happens inside the organism that lets it live (physiology)

    21. Adaptations • Adaptation is a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.

    22. Evolution • Darwin hypothesized that the species gradually changed over many generations and became better adapted to the new conditions. • Evolution is the gradual change in a species over time.

    23. Natural Selection • Natural selection is the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species.

    24. Evidence of Evolution • Fossils. • Pattern of early development. • Similar body structure.

    25. Similarities in Early Development • What do an adult fish, salamander, chicken and opossum have in common? • During early stages of development all four have a tail and a row of tiny slits along their throats.

    26. Similarities in Body Structure • What do fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals have in common? • They all have an internal skeleton with a backbone. • Homologous structures are similar structures that related species have inherited. • Dolphin’s flipper. • Dog’s leg. • Bird’s wing.

    27. In what way did the Galapagos finches vary? • Different color • Different beak structure • Size of bird • Change in type of foot • I need help!

    28. Darwin’s studies of finches on the Galapagos Islands suggest that the finches’ differences in beak structure were most directly due to…. • Acquired characteristics in the parent finches • Mating behaviors of different finch species • Adaptations of the finches to different environments • I need help!

    29. Which of the following is better adapted for a water environment? • Hawk • Duck • sparrow B A. C

    30. Variation Please copy circle and do this. • Fill in three words that closely relate to the word given. • Write a paragraph explaining the significance of each word and how they fit together to form a concept?

    31. FADTP 4-3

    32. We are learning to: explain that diversity of species is developed through gradual processes over many generations. • We are looking for: how a species has changed to adapt to survive in its environment as evidenced by fossil records and present day organisms. • We are learning to: describe how an organism adapted to a particular environment may become extinct. • We are looking for :evidence in the fossil record of the environmental change that caused an organism to go extinct

    33. Inferring Species Relationships • DNA evidence. • Protein structure. • Fossils. • Early development. • Body structure.

    34. Branching Tree • A branching tree is a diagram that shows how scientists think different groups of organisms are related.

    35. New Species • A new species can form when a group of individuals remains isolated from the rest of its species long enough to evolve different traits.

    36. The Fossil Record • Fossils form when organisms that die become buried in sediments. • Types of Fossils • Petrified fossils. • Molds & casts. • Preserved remains.

    37. Determining Age of Fossils • Scientists can determine a fossil’s age in two ways: • Relative dating. • Radioactive dating using half-life.

    38. Geologic Time Scale • Precambrian • Paleozoic Era • Cambrian • Ordovician • Silurian • Devonian • Carboniferous • Permian • Mesozoic Era • Triassic • Jurassic • Cretaceous • Cenozoic Era • Tertiary • Quaternary

    39. Cause of the Mass Extinction • About 65 million years ago a large asteroid struck the earth. • The impact created a large cloud of gas and dust. • The dust blocked sunlight, killing many plants. • Animals all starved to death.

    40. Rate of Evolution • Gradualism proposes that evolution occurs slowly but steadily. • Punctuated equilibria states that a species evolve quickly during relatively short periods.

    41. How do scientists know that organisms have evolved? • Fossil record shows changes in organisms • Photographic evidence • Climate changes • Old written observations 0 of 28 10

    42. What can scientists learn from fossils? • Fossils show how life has changed on Earth • Fossils show how living things have stayed the same for many years • Fossils show that most organisms that lived millions of years ago still exist today • Fossils show that the Earth is only 6,000 years old. 0 of 28 10

    43. Which layer of rock has the oldest fossil? • Top layer • Middle layer • Bottom layer • Help! I don’t understand! 0 of 28 10

    44. 1. PRACTICE 2. EXTENSION Make a drawing that shows where old fossils would be found and where new fossils would be found in sedimentary rock. Imagine you are examining a certain species of fossils in several layer of rock and you notice that fossils disappear as you go up in the layers of rock. Write a paragraph that provides an explanation for this. 4. FRONTLOAD Pre Check Key Terms 3. REVIEW ____sexual reproduction ____asexual reproduction _____heredity _____genetics _____gene _____chromosome _____DNA Make a drawing showing the position of the Earth, Sun and Moon at full moon phase. Shade the portion of the moon that is not lit up by the sun.

    45. OAA Review

    46. FADTP 4-5

    47. We are learning to:describe how asexual reproduction increases or decreases chances for survival.We are looking for :Increases survival: due to no variation, it allows for survival in a stable environment.Decreases survival: due to no variation, the organism is not able to adapt to a changing environment.

    48. Asexual vs. Sexual Reproduction

    49. Asexual reproduction • A form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis or fertilization. • Asexual reproduction = one parent. • The primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as archaea, bacteria, and protists. • Many plants and fungi reproduce mostly asexually as well.