English for academic study English for academic study—— Listening and Speaking 学术英语听与说 山东大学 高艳 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
English for academic study Outline • Introduction to EAP course • Teaching demo for listening • Teaching demo for speaking
English for academic study 什么是 “学术英语”? • 学术 —是指系统专门的学问，是对存在物及其规律的学科化论证，泛指高等教育和研究。 • 学术英语 — 在大学背景下使用的英语（学术语言）。
English for academic study What is English for academic study? • Itrefers to the oral, written, auditory, and visual language proficiency required to learn effectively in schools and academic programs—i.e., it’s the language used in classroom lessons, books, tests, and assignments, and it’s the language that students are expected to learn and achieve fluency in.
English for academic study • 国内高等教育在学术训练方面欠缺 • 人们对学术英语的认识有误区 • 学术英语课程的开设在发生变化
English for academic study Course description: • Course name: English for academic study (EGAP) • Credit: 1.5 • Teaching hours: 24 • Teaching approach: skilled based • Course contents: • Listening to lectures and note-taking • Oral presentation • Reading strategies and skills • Essay writing and summary writing Note：This is based on the curriculum in Shanda
English for academic study • Course Assessment • Final exam:50% (listening, reading, summary writing, etc.) • Oral presentation: 15% • Essay writing：15% • Assignments: 10% • Class performance: 10%
English for academic study Students’ background: • 大学二年级第1学期 • 三个班，91人，（其中包括1名乌克兰留学生） • 专业包括：药学、口腔、护理、公卫、计算机 • 学生英语水平：已完成大学英语四级课程 64人通过CET4， 最高分631， 最低分470，平均分559
English for academic study 问卷调查结果： 专业学习中的英语使用情况： 1.专业课中是否有全英文授课？ 是（18.8%） 2.专业课中是否有双语授课？ 是（72.5%） 3.是否听过全英语讲座？偶尔（68.8% ），从没有（31.2%） 4.理解程度 50%以下（47.5%），50-70%（23.8%） 5.是否使用全英文教材？ 是（58.8%) 6.用英语完成相关作业 经常（16.3%）偶尔（42.5%） Scales: 1=完全不同意 2=不太同意 3=难说 4=基本同意 5=非常同意
English for academic study English for academic study —Listening
English for academic study Students’ Problems in listening: • Speed, topic, vocabulary. • Students cannot identify the key information. They hope to understand everything. • When they take notes, they don’t know what do write down. • They cannot write quickly enough, so that they often write one thing and miss the others.
English for academic study What to teach? Macroskills： • Make use of lecture introduction • Note-taking • Recognizing the structure and key information of lectures Microskills: • Recognizing words that are spoken quickly and not stressed • Recognizing where one spoken word ends and the next begins • Word stress and sentences stress
English for academic study • Case One: Introductions to lectures • Teaching objective: How to make good use of introduction to a lecture • Skills to learn: Getting familiar with “language signals”. I. Class discussion • What do you expect the lecturer to talk about in the introduction to a lecture? • Do you think a lecturer should try to make the structure of the lecture obvious to students in the introduction? • If so, how does he do?
English for academic study II. Listening Practice (1) • Watch a video clip and see if the lecturer tells what she is going to talk about. If she does, what is her topic and how do you know it? 2. Look at the following two notes taken by two students. Which student understood what the lecturer was going to talk about? Student 1: Migration from new EU countries, e.g., Poland – effect on UK econ., etc. Student 2: Not EU migration But internal UK migration, e.g., country to city.
English for academic study The lecturer refers to EU migration as a contemporary phenomenon, but then goes on to say that she is going to focus on internal migration ------ “that’s not the type of migration I want to look at today. What I want to look at is internal migration”. To understand the real topic, language signals are very important. Look at examples in the handout Page 38.
English for academic study Main functions of lecture instruction: • Introduce the topic of the lecture • Define the scope of the lecture • Give background information about the topic • Provide an overview of the structure and content of the lecture
English for academic study Listening Practice (2) You are going to watch a video clip, in which a lecturer gives an introduction to the lecture “Globalization”. 1. Prediction: What does globalization mean to you? What kind of people does it affect? 2. Watch the clip and find out what the lecturer is going to talk about? Take notes when you listen.
English for academic study • The lecture is going to cover: • some understanding of the history of globalization • what globalization means to people on a local level • what its implications could be for the whole world Homework: More practice on listening to lecture introductions. Online source: http://www.englishforacademicstudy.com/http://www.reading.ac.uk/SACLL/UniversityofReadingLectures/SACLL-UniofReadingLectures.aspx
English for academic study English for academic study —Speaking
English for academic study Students’ problems: • Cannot tell the differences between social English and academic English. • Don’t know how to give an oral presentation in an academic way. • Read or recite rather than talk when they give an oral presentation. • Have a poor structure in oral presentation. • Don’t know how to ask questions. • Don’t know how to participate in discussion actively.
English for academic study What to teach? • Skills and speaking functions that learners need to use in an academic context • How to express their ideas properly and accurately • Skills of participating in or holding a discussion, asking for information/clarification, stating a point of view, supporting your view of agreeing or disagreeing. • Skills of making an effective oral presentation, structure of the presentation, using notes to speak from, introducing the topic, getting to a conclusion.
English for academic study Case 2: Participating successfully in a discussion and making a mini-presentation Topic: Being a successful student Teaching objectives： • Expressing agreeing and disagreeing in a group discussion • Making use of notes in oral presentation
English for academic study I. Lead-in • Read the statements below. Do you agree (A), disagree (D) or partly agree (P) with each one? Give reasons to support your answers. • Compare your answers with your partner. To succeed at university, you need to: ______ be good at taking exams ______ be a quick reader ______ have a good tutor ______ manage your time well ______ understand your own learning style ______ have a good memory
English for academic study 3. Listen to two students discussing some statements about academic life. Does the second speaker agree, disagree or partly agree with each statement? Underline the correct alternative in the Opinion column in the table. (Look at the handout Page 41.) 4. Listen to the discussion again and write down the exact words the second speaker uses to agree, disagree or partly agree.
English for academic study Key: • I agree with you up to a point, but some courses depend a lot on other types of assessed work, apart from exams. (P) • Yes, that’s true, but you also need to be able to understand and retain what you’ve read. (P) • I’m not sure I agree with you there. If you’ve got good research skills and are motivated, I still think you can succeed. (D) • Absolutely, I totally agree. Without good time management, you won’t be able to deal with all the work you’re given and you’ll quickly fall behind. (A)
English for academic study 5. That’s a very good point. That sort of self-awareness makes you into a much more efficient learner. (A) 6. Not necessarily. If you have a good understanding of your subject, and revise hard, I think you can get a good degree. (P) Now compare your answers with these students. Do you think their answers are reasonable? What other expressions do you know to express agreement, disagreement and partial agreement?
English for academic study II. Group discussion • Discuss the study skills you will need at university. • Come to an agreement on the study skills your group thinks are the most important for success at university • List what your group thinks are the five most important skills. • Remember to use the expressions of agreement, disagreement and partial agreement in your discussion and give support to your opinions. • Report back about their discussion.
English for academic study III. Practice making a mini-presentation 1. Look at the following notes which give the tips for successful study. Try to put each phrase into a complete sentence. • Study tips: • Be well organized • Work with classmates • Keep good notes • Develop good IT skills • Be motivated
English for academic study 2. Listen to a student presenting his top five study tips based on this. Then think of how he connected each point into a complete talk. • Using a topic sentence to begin the talk • Using transitions to connect each idea Signpost expressions: There are five main points which we consider important for successful study. Our first point is …… Next, Moving on to our third point, Fourthly, And finally,
English for academic study Presentation skills: When giving a presentation, you need to help your audience follow your presentation by using signpost expressions. These are important for: • Opening a presentation • Guiding an audience through the main points • Helping an audience understand the presentation’s organization • Closing a presentation
English for academic study IV. Oral Presentation Practice: • Each group prepare a presentation of the five study tips you have agreed on. Remember to use the presentation skills you learned from the class. You will deliver your presentation to the class after the preparation.
English for academic study 4. Assessing students’ performance • Structure and cohesion: Was the topic clearly identified at the beginning? Is the order logical and easy to follow? Is it signposted throughout? • Language and fluency: Is the language clear and easy to follow? Is the pace of the speech, or flow of ideas too fast or too slow? • Body language: Is the speaker making eye contact with audience? Is the speaker’s posture upright and confident?
English for academic study Language is only one of the keys to academic success. Academic culture, study skills, critical thinking, autonomy of learning, etc. are also keys. EAP component should (could) be incorporated in any English course. Can you develop professionally without academic English skills? From a teachers’ forum
English for academic study Thanks !