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York Information Management and Systems. Process Mapping Workshop. Agenda. 2.00 Introduction Why are you here? What is a business process? Why adopt a process view? Methodology Mapping Tools 2.45 Break 3.00 Group exercise 3.45 Feedback 4.15 Summary 4.30 Finish.

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Presentation Transcript
agenda
Agenda

2.00 Introduction

Why are you here?

What is a business process?

Why adopt a process view?

Methodology

Mapping Tools

2.45 Break

3.00 Group exercise

3.45 Feedback

4.15 Summary

4.30 Finish

what is a business process
What is a business process?

“The unique way in which an organisation co-ordinates and organises its work activities, information and knowledge to produce a valuable product or service”

(Laudon and Laudon, 1998)

what is a business process1
What is a business process?

Primary processes

Support processes

Manage processes

Add

Provide infrastructure and other support

Co-ordinate and control

Recruit students

Teach students

Assess students

Graduate students

Personnel

Finance

IT

Payroll

Set direction

Make strategy

primary processes
Primary Processes

Postgraduate

Education

- Taught

Postgraduate

Education

- Research

Applied

Research &

Consultancy

Undergraduate

Education

Research

Develop

Proposal

Develop

Courses

Get

Student

Develop Courses

Get Order

Get

Students

Develop

Proposal

Get

Funding

Fulfil

Order

Get

Students

Carry Out

Research

Get

Funding

Teach

Students

Teach

Students

Support

Assess

Students

Supervise

Research

Disseminate

Findings

Assess

Students

Report to

Sponsor

Graduate

Assess

Graduate

slide6

Traditional functional view

of an organisation

SALES AND

MARKETING

  • OTHER

FINANCE

PLANNING

PRODUCTION

slide7

Recording exam results

DEPARTMENT

EXAM BOARD

  • DEGREE CERTIFICATE
  • SIGNATORY

REGISTRY

MARKER

SECRETARY

  • leaves room for error
  • encourages duplication
  • encourages waste
slide8

The process view ...

?

ACADEMIC

DEPARTMENT

PLANNING

PERSONNEL

FINANCE

OTHER

.... provides a complete uninterrupted view of how things are actually done.

why adopt a process view
Why Adopt A Process View?
  • it encourages a customer focus
  • it allows flexibility needed to meet changing environment
  • it makes duplication and waste more visible
  • it encourages innovation and creativity
  • it facilitates cost reduction
  • it facilitates team ownership
  • it helps address quality issues
process review in other universities
Process review in other Universities

Nottingham Trent

Staffordshire

Northumbria at Newcastle

The Open University

Glasgow-Caledonian

Loughborough

  • Surrey

Aberdeen

Sheffield Hallam

London Guildhall

Essex

Napier

Keele

Queens University of Belfast

Herriot-Watt

Abertay

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Glasgow

Hull

Leeds

Ulster

UWE

Liverpool John Moores

Leicester

Cranfield

De Montford

Bath

Aston

Thames Valley

drivers for change
Drivers for Change
  • Financial pressures
  • Growth
  • Desire for transparency and quality of information
  • Concern over increasing administration costs
  • Information systems review and implementation of new systems
success factors
Success Factors
  • Readiness for Change
  • Change Agent
  • Ownership
  • Support from Senior Management
  • Communication
  • Team’s ability to listen
  • Non-threatening approach
problems barriers
Problems/Barriers
  • Structures set in stone
  • Lack of leadership and drive
  • Politics
  • Bureaucracy
  • People defend their own interests
  • Lack of performance measures
  • “Just another initiative” syndrome
bpr in uk universities methodology dr j macbryde strathclyde university
BPR in UK Universities Methodology(Dr J MacBryde, Strathclyde University)
  • Phase 1: Planning & Preparation
  • Phase 2: Understand Existing Processes
  • Phase 3: Redesign
  • Phase 4: Plan Implementation
  • Phase 5: Implementation
  • Phase 6: Continuous Process Improvement & Measurement
phase 1 planning preparation
Phase 1: Planning &Preparation
  • identify opportunity/need for review
  • develop and sell business case
  • communicate
  • build and train the team
  • produce a detailed plan including responsibilities
phase 2 understand existing processes
Phase 2: Understand Existing Processes
  • Identify customer/stakeholder requirements
  • model processes
  • identify value adding activities
phase 3 redesign
Phase 3: Redesign
  • identify duplication and waste
  • simplify processes
  • identify where technology can be used
  • gain consensus and support
  • identify training requirements
  • define new working procedures
  • specify job changes and team roles
phase 4 plan implementation
Phase 4: Plan Implementation
  • design change management programme
  • plan implementation
phase 5 implementation
Phase 5: Implementation
  • train staff
  • pilot redesigned processes and seek feedback
  • full scale implementation
phase 6 continuous process improvement and measurement
Phase 6 : Continuous Process Improvement and Measurement
  • measure improvements and communicate benefits
  • set up periodic reviews to ensure processes are still effective
  • encourage continuous analytical thinking “why am I doing this? Do I need to? Is there a better way to do this?”
why map current processes
Why map current processes?
  • it shows exactly where existing processes fall down
  • it gives you a benchmark
  • which allows you to measure improvements
  • and savings made following redesign
requirements for a mapping tool
Requirements for a mapping tool
  • easy to learn
  • guidelines to ensure everyone uses a common language
  • show why an activity is carried out
  • show who does the activity
  • highlight bottlenecks and waste
what are you looking for
What are you looking for?
  • what are the key steps/activities/tasks that are performed?
  • how long does the whole process take ?
  • how long does each task take ?
  • what are the delays, waiting times etc..
  • where do bottlenecks build up
  • question whether each step is necessary
how do we map processes
How do we map processes?
  • Structured Systems Analysis & Design Method (SSADM)
  • Soft systems methods
  • IDEF diagrams
  • Flow charts
  • Role activity diagrams
flow chart
Flow Chart
  • The starting point of a process is depicted by a circle
  • Each processing step is indicated by a rectangle
  • the process ends with an oval
  • a decision point is shown by a diamond
  • a parallelogram contains useful information but is not a processing step
  • arrows show flow (material or information)
flow chart1
Flow Chart
  • good because it has a common language
  • good because it’s quite simple
  • an established method used in work study and quality programmes
  • drawback is that it doesn’t show why an activity takes place
  • doesn’t explicitly show who carried out each activity
role activity diagram rad
Role Activity Diagram (RAD)
  • Similar to a flow chart, but it also shows:
  • how activities are divided amongst roles
  • interactions between individual roles
  • how many roles are involved
role activity diagram rad1
Role Activity Diagram (RAD)
  • In a workshop setting:
  • Easy to produce using Post-Its
  • Don’t worry about circles, diamonds etc
  • Don’t be afraid to get it wrong- easy to move things around
  • Don’t write on anything else!
process improvement
Process improvement
  • we look for waste:
    • waiting
    • transport (e.g. internal mail)
    • inappropriate processing
    • unnecessary transport
    • duplication
    • correction of mistakes
    • unnecessary controls
process improvement1
Process improvement
  • number of staff involved in steps in the process
  • time spent by staff on steps in the process
  • delay time associated with each step
  • quality measurements such as error rates, customer complaints etc.
  • why errors or quality problems arise
  • what are the value adding steps in the eyes of the customer
  • where (location) is each step performed
  • the number of controls and approvals required - and reasons why these are needed
  • any seasonal or cyclical changes to the volume of transactions
some problems with mapping
Some problems with mapping
  • teams can get bogged down in existing (“as is”) processes
  • which in turn encourages the team to stick with what they know and only look for incremental improvements rather than radical change
example role activity diagrams
Example Role Activity Diagrams
  • Recruitment
  • Course Transfers
  • Tuition fees
  • Accommodation applications
exercise mapping york s processes
ExerciseMapping York’s Processes
  • STEP 1 Role Activity Diagram for what happens now
  • STEP 2 Look for improvements
summary
Summary
  • Did you find it easy or difficult?
  • Were the start & end of the process clear?
  • Did mapping the process help in identifying improvements?
  • Next steps?