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Management Information Systems Classic Models and New Approaches
Functions of Managers • Planning-devising short range and long range plans and setting goals to meet these plans • Organizing-deciding how to use resources such as money and people • Staffing-hiring and management of workers • Directing-guidance for employees to accomplish their work • Controlling-monitors the organization’s progress towards the company’s goals
Levels of Management • Top-level managers or the strategic level of management is concerned with long term goals and health and stability of the company • Middle level managers carry out tactical tasks in carrying out the visions of the top-level managers. Focus on organizing and staffing • Low-level managers sometimes known as the supervisor carry out operational tasks of the everyday business of the company.
MIS for Managers • Management Information Systems are a set of formal business systems designed to provide information for an organization • Generally will incorporate all five functions of management • The MIS department is run by the MIS manager also called the information resource manager, director of information services, chief information officer (CIO) and many more
A Flattened Pyramid-New Business Model • Information which was traditionally passed down from the top is now spread widely across networks • Since much of the middle manager’s job revolved around disseminating information from top-level to lower-level managers, many companies eliminate these positions when downsizing
Groupware • Mangers feel threatened because all information is stored centrally for all team members • Works best in environments where there is already a fairly open corporate environment • Affects working relationships and can blur boundaries between departments • Can make it difficult for managers to “look over employee’s shoulders”
Teamwork • Way to organize human resources into teams with a task-focused job • Teams are generally changing as the tasks change • Experts consider the ideal size of a team to be eight members
Decision Support Systems • A computer system that supports managers in non-routing decision making using modelling • Models are mathematical representations of real-life systems • Input to the model is called an independent variable because it can changes • Output from the system is called a dependent variable because it depends on the input
More on DSS • Simulations are used to model a real-life situation to see how the model behaves in different situations • In order for this to work, the model must reflect reality • DSS supplements MIS and must be designed to be fast and interactive
Executive Information Systems • Designed specifically for the needs of yop level managers • Things the EIS must take into consideration: • Vision of the company • Long term planning • Organizational structure • Staffing and labor relations • Crisis management • Control and monitoring of overall operation • Can also include outside information such as federal information and market information
Managing Personal Computers • Management problems include allocation of IT resources, increasing dependence on the IT department, inventory management, and training • Solved these problems by: • Creating the PC manager or the network manager • Established policies to enforce compatibility of machines • Created assistance centers and training opportunities • Used software to inventory their PCs • Examined the total cost of ownership of a PC
The PC Manager • Some problems faced by the PC Manager include: • Technology overload-results from number and variety of vendors selling hardware and software. Manager must make decisions with company goals in mind • Data security and integrity-Should it be downloaded to the PC? Who has the right to see the data? Will the MIS department clean up the data after users are done with it?
Computer Junkies • Hackers or others interested in the new power of their machine • People who overuse the computer instead of getting their real work done • Managers generally will set guidelines for computer use as company policy
Network or LAN Manager • As networks began to appear in businesses, PC managers many time became the network or LAN manager • Installs software and hardware to maintain the network, monitors backups, scans for viruses, and monitors for unauthorized use of the network and its resources
The Information Center • Where workers can get help with software problems and help is provided in a timely manner without a lot of red tape. • Can be called other names such as the support center of help desk • Some functions of the information center include: • Software and hardware selection • Data Access • Network Access • Training • Technical Assistance • The information center must be located conveniently and must be staffed by employees with technical backgrounds who can explain concepts to people without technical backgrounds
Training: Pay Now or Pay Later? • Should be provided with new technology because vendors rarely provide training any more • Training many times relies on a one-time teacher in the classroom session which is ineffective • Workers also need follow up support from savvy users or the information center
Involving the Workers • Deal with people as you deal with the technology • Emphasize what the technology can do for the workers • Mind the generation gap as older employees will likely be less familiar with technology • Use web based training where appropriate due to its availability and its low cost
Inventory of technology • Very difficult for managers to know how many PCs and printers as well as what software applications are installed where • Makes budgeting and planning difficult • New software makes counting and tracking PCs and their software easier for managers
Remote Users • Remote users such as sales people who need to be in the field to be more effective need adequate access to company resources • Use of laptop, internet, and email can help alleviate the problem • Training and security are concerns associated with remote users
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) • Method for calculating the total cost of owning computer and takes into account: • Standardization throughout the corporation • Use of desktop management software or inventory software • Software that limits the user’s ability to install non-standard or non-related work software • Determining the TCO is difficult and can have many political difficulties but will result in better buying and management decisions