presidential nomination and election n.
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Presidential Nomination and Election

Presidential Nomination and Election

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Presidential Nomination and Election

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  1. Presidential Nomination and Election Section 3 Chapter 7

  2. Focus Questions • What is the electoral college? • How are presidential candidates chosen? • How are convention delegates chosen? • What is the format for national conventions?

  3. First step to the election process is nominating (choosing people to run for office) candidates • The framers designed a system for choosing the nation’s president and vice president, they did not anticipate how the U.S. political system would develop

  4. Electoral College • The framers argued over how to choose the president but eventually agreed upon the electoral college– a special body made up of people selected by each of the states who vote for the president and vice president • The plan was to have an elector– electoral college member-- cast two ballots • The person with the most votes would be president and with the second most would be vice president • Each states would have as many electoral votes as it had members in Congress

  5. Electoral College • The first two elections worked smoothly as Washington was elected unanimously twice • A problem developed when electoral college members began voting for their political parties

  6. Electoral College • In 1800, electors were chosen according to their political party and voted exclusively for their own party’s candidates in the election • The majority of electors chosen were Democratic-Republicans (political party)—and all of those party members cast their two votes for Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr

  7. Electoral College • Because they cast the votes for both members they tied and it took 35 ballots in the House of Representatives to give the Presidency to Thomas Jefferson • In 1804 the 12th Amendment was passed that separated the ballots for president and vice-president (one vote for each)

  8. Nomination Procedures Early Nominating Procedures • Early 1800s parties chose candidates in congressional caucuses • Caucus is a meeting of political party members who gather to address political issues • The meetings went on behind closed doors and many citizens felt they were unrepresentative and these were replaced in the 1820s

  9. Nomination Procedures Conventions The end of caucuses led to conventions– party gatherings held to nominate candidates, determine rules of the party, and make decisions on party’s stance By 1832 all major parties were using conventions Delegates go to the conventions The delegates are either chosen by presidential primary or state caucuses

  10. Presidential Primaries • Today most states hold presidential primaries to determine who will be the convention delegates • Primary elections—state elections that are held before the conventions that determine the candidates for each party • Voters nationwide will choose officials in a general election • The primaries serve two functions: select delegates to the convention and show voters’ preferences for presidential candidates

  11. Caucuses • Caucuses are held in some states instead of presidential primaries • The caucuses are local meetings of party members that help determine who the delegates will be sent to the national convention • State law determines whether the parties choose presidential convention delegates by primary or by caucus

  12. The Nominating Season • The nominating season usually starts in February with early caucuses and ends with the last primaries in June • “Front-loading” of primaries—the scheduling of primaries early in the year—can therefore have a great effect on the outcome of the nominating process • Success of a candidate in early primaries can boost them to the front of the pack • Candidates understand the importance of winning early primaries and look for early opportunities to win

  13. National Conventions • The candidates are officially chosen at the national convention • The conventions are gigantic, boisterous events filled with tradition • Conventions choose the candidates, set the parties stance on issues of the day, and also try to unify the party

  14. National Conventions • Members make rousing speeches, music and balloons fill the air • The format of the convention includes opening speeches, adoption of a party platform, floor demonstrations by delegates, and state-by-state roll call for the presidential and vice presidential nominations

  15. National Conventions Speeches Influential figures in the party give speeches about the party and about the broad themes that the party supports The most important speech is the keynote speaker, who presents the themes that the party will feature

  16. National Conventions Party Platform • The biggest controversy centers around approving the party platform– party’s positions on issues of the day • The platform is made up of several planks—party’s issue on a particular issue • Party leaders try to settle disagreements before the convention • The delegates finally vote on the platform at the convention

  17. National Conventions Floor Demonstrations At one time convention people held spontaneous demonstration on behalf of their candidates Now they are carefully planned with exuberant music and a display of balloons

  18. National Conventions State-by-State Roll Call • The state-by-state roll call of the delegates is one tradition that has lasted • Each state’s party leader is called upon and they respond with how their state’s vote will be distributed • The candidate must receive over 50 percent of the convention’s votes to become the party’s nominee

  19. The Election • After the candidates are chosen they then campaign for several months and then the general election is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November • On election day the citizens then go and vote for a candidate they think is the best • Do they win then?

  20. The Election Electoral College and the Popular Vote Popular votes– votes cast by the general public– are actually cast for slates of electors who are pledged to the candidates for whom people with to vote In all but two states, candidates who receive a plurality – or most– of the popular votes receive all that state’s electoral votes (Nebraska is an exception to this rule) Someone could actually win the nation’s popular vote and lose the electoral vote

  21. The Election Criticisms of the Electoral College • The fact that the electoral college allows someone who did not receive the most popular votes to win an election has caused people to criticize the electoral college • Another criticism is that electors are not required to vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged—making it possible for them to disregard the popular vote • A final criticism is that a strong third party candidate could make it hard for either of the two major parties to get a majority of votes

  22. Focus Questions • What is the electoral college? • How are presidential candidates chosen? • How are convention delegates chosen? • What is the format for national conventions?