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Lesson 9 A flying cat. International College By Fan Hui. StepⅠ Text introduction We’ll talk about cats and how cats can fly? 1.how do cats try to protect themselves from falling from great heights?. StepⅡ New words and expressions
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Lesson 9 A flying cat International College By Fan Hui
StepⅠ Text introduction • We’ll talk about cats and how cats can fly? • 1.how do cats try to protect themselves from falling from great heights?
StepⅡ New words and expressions • ★fascinate v. 迷住，吸引住=interest ,but it is weaker than fascinate，attractfascination n. 魔力, 入迷, 魅力fascinating adj. 令人着迷的 Sweet music is fascinating.Fascinated adj. 感到着迷的be fascinated with/about… 迷上…… • He is fascinated with music. • He is fascinated with chess. • Are you fascinated with English? • 近义词 • be crazy about… 着迷于…… He is crazy about music.be mad about… 着迷于…… He is mad about music.like, love, be fond of 喜欢…… The boy is fond of football. • Enthrall 在视听两方面吸引人 • enthralling stories 引人入胜的故事 • charm 使人陶醉 • Her beauty charms the fish. • 沉鱼落雁之美
★affectionate owing/devoted, but affectionate emphasizes on showing out the feeling adj.充满深情的 • Cats are affectionate animals. • an affectionate couple/eyes恩爱夫妻/柔情似水的眼 • affectionate towards 对…充满柔情 • She is very affectionate towards her son. 她很爱他的儿子。 • affect vt. 影响, 感动 • affection n. love友爱, 爱情, 影响, 疾病, 倾向 • affectionately adv. 充满深情地, 有感情地, 慈爱地 • Affectional 爱情的 affectional films 爱情片 • The lady is looking at that man affectionately. • affected 矫揉造作的，不自然的 • affectedly sweet 娇滴滴
★mysterious adj. difficult to explain or understand神秘的,(与神无关的）难以理解的 • a mysterious plan/smile • a mysterious explanationmystery n. 谜面，神秘感 • His death is a mystery. • mystic神灵的，与神有关的，神秘的（犹用于宗教界）
★submissive adj. 服从的，顺从的（内在的意志上的顺从）=obedient, tame,obey to sb unkind to you • be submissive to sb. 服从……Dogs and horses are submissive, but cats are never submissive to us. • submit v. 服从, 顺从 • submit oneself to sb./sth. 顺从于某人/某物 • submit to the discipline遵守纪律 • submit to the enermy投降敌人 • submission n. 屈服, 降服, 服从
tame emphasizes on the opposite of the wild与野生动物相对 • obedient 强调在行动上行为上对权威的一种服从 • obedient adj. 服从的, 孝顺的 • Are you obedient? • docile听话的docile kids听话的孩子 • meek温顺的 meek and mild women温柔贤惠的女人
★independence n. freedom from control独立，独立性 • the AmericanDeclaration of Independence 美国独立宣言 • India gained independence from Britain in 1947.印度于1947年摆脱英国统治。 • independent adj. 独立的 • You have already grown up, you must be independent. • Be independent of独立出来的 • As you must have seen from my work, I’m perfectly independent of him. • 你从我的工作一定可以看出来，我已经完全不依靠他了。 • depend on/upon依靠 You must depend onupon yourself. • Young children is dependent on their parents for love and emotional support. • 小孩子在情感上非常依赖他的父母。 • depend, dependence, independence, independent
resistance n. 抵抗力,反抗,反抗行动;阻力,电阻;反对 • There has been a lot of resistance to this new law. 反对这项新法律的人很多 • Her resistance to the proposal has crumpled. • 她对这个建议的抵触情绪已化为乌有了 • ★windowsill n. a shelf fixed along the bottom of the window窗槛，窗沿，窗台 • sill门槛，窗台 doorsill门槛
★high-rise adj. 高层的 of tall buildings with many levels • High-rise buildings low-rise 低层的 walk-ups 不带电梯的小板楼 • skycraper摩天大楼 mansion大厦，官邸，巨宅 A Dream of Red Mansion红楼梦 high-tech高科技的 high-tech products 高科技产品 hi-jack劫机 highway公路 high sea公海，大海 • paratrooper n. a soldier who is trained to jump out of a plane with parachute伞兵 • Trooper 装甲兵 infantry 步兵 cavalry 骑兵 artillery 炮兵 • air/disease/drug-resistance n. 空气阻力/抗病/抗药性
impact n. the effect of an event or force of hitting against sth.冲击,冲突,影响 • the impact of a collision 碰撞时的冲击力 • He collapsed under the full impact of the blow. • 他受到重击而倒下 • Her speech made a great impact on everyone. • 她的演说对每个人影响很大。 • Psychological impact 心灵创伤 • have a big negtive impact on sb. 有负面影响
Survive vt. 幸免于，从逃生，比活得长， vi.活下来，幸存，保存下来 • Few buildings survived the bombing raids intact. • 没有什么建筑物完好无损的幸免于空袭。 • That man survived his sister by three years. • 那个人的寿命比他姐姐长三年。 • His father has survived all his brithers and sisters. • 他父亲比他所有的兄弟姐妹都活得长。 • Of the ten people in the plane that crashed, only one survived. • 失事飞机上的十个人中，仅有一个幸存者。 • Many strange customs have survived from earlier times. • 许多奇怪的风俗是从古代遗留下来的。
Background Knowledge(背景知识)： • 猫有九命A cat has nine lives. • 据英国民间传说，猫的生命力特别强，很不容易被弄死。人们把猫从高处扔下去，他能稳稳当当地四脚落地，不受损伤，有时甚至把一只猫打得一动不动了，过会儿他又复活过来。而且，猫具有机敏，灵活等天赋特性，很难致死。甚至是在某些药物能使大多数动物致死的情况下，猫却能奇迹般的生存下来。由此而产生习语A cat has nine lives。意为“猫有九条命，猫生命力极强”。
A cat on hot bricks. • “热锅上的蚂蚁” • Pat was like a cat on hot bricks, for Betty had snatched her boyfriend’s photo to pass it around the classroom. • To lead a cat-and-dog life • 自古以来猫和狗都是死对头，所以是指人与人之间不断地争吵。 • Mr. and Mrs. Smith have been leading a cat-and-dog life since they married. • Let the cat out of the bag泄露秘密 • Has the cat got your tongue? (Why don’t you speak) • 你为什么不吭声？（猫把你的舌头叼去了？） • 对于一个由于害怕或胆怯而沉默不语的人，常说此话，也常用于和害羞的孩子开玩笑。
Comprehension Questions • 1 How do cats often behave towards humans? • 2 But they are suspicious of humans as well, aren’t they? • 3 Do they lead mysterious lives of their own? • 4 How are they different from dogs and horses? • 5 What have humans learned to respect about cats? • 6 What is the popular belief about cats? • 7 Is there any truth in this belief? • 8 Which institution recently made a study of cats?
9 How many cats took part in this study? • 10 What did all these cats have in common? • 11 How many of them had died? • 12 Why is New York the ideal place for this kind of study? • 13 What had the cat called Sabrina suffered from? • 14 What did a doctor compare falling cats with? • 15 What seems to happen to cats the further they fall?
16 What speeds do they reach in a long drop? • 17 What do cats have time to do during a long drop? • 18 What do they do with the legs when falling? • 19 What other animals do this? • 20 What effect does increased air-resistance have?
StepⅣ Language points • 1.Cats never fail tofascinate human beings. • =cats always fascinate human beings. But compare the two sentences above★never fail to 双重否定(double negative )意味肯定（运用双重否定结构加深句子肯定的语气） • There is no shortage of tall buildings.(text)=There are a lot of tall buildings. • I am not unaware of the facts.=I am fully aware of the facts. • If you ask for help in the polite way, you never fail to succeed=you will succeed. • If you receive requests like this, you'll never fail to accept.=you will accept.
★fail的常见结构：fail to do sth. 未能做成某事 • Don’t fail to come to the concert on Saturday evening.fail in (doing) sth.在（做）某事中失败 • She failed in everything she tried. His colleague failed in persuading him. • fail+sb.使某人失败 • At that crucial moment his courage failed him. • 在紧要关头他却胆怯了。 • nver fail to do双重否定＝肯定，常用的双重否定结构（加强语气） • If you aks for help in the polite way, you never fail to succeed. • If you receive requests like this, you'll never fail to accept.
本句亮点：双重否定表达强烈肯定，很有力度，于是常常不可避免的带有作者的情绪：或迷惑，或好奇，或激动，或鼓舞。我们还可以从一句著名的广告词中体会双重否定的妙处：Nothing is impossible. • 猫总能引起人们的极大兴趣。 • Cats always /never fail to fascinate human beings. • 每个人都注意到她急匆匆地走了出去，没有穿那件红色大衣。 • Everyone noticed /No one failed to that she went out in a hurry without the red overcoat. • 激情的工作狂和严苛的老板在日本很常见。 • Enthusiastic workaholics and strict bosses are commonly seen /are hardly unknown in Japan. • 这里所有的人都希望你健康好运。 • Every one here /There is no one here wishes you good health and luckiness. • 如果你遇到一个像她一样礼貌的女孩，你一定会伸出援助之手的。 • If you meet a girl as polite as her, you will never surely /fail to give her a hand.
2．They can be friendly and affectionate towards humans, but they lead mysterious lives of their own as well.这是一个由but连接的并列句：1）They can befriendly and affectionatetowards humans, 它们可以对人友好，充满柔情。but但是，they lead mysterious lives of their ownas well. 它们又有自己神秘的生活方式。 • 2）They 他们（主语）can be（can情态动词 be系动词） • friendly and affectionate对人友好，充满柔情（表语）towards humans, 对人（状语） • 3）they 它们（主语）lead 带路，领路（这里意为“过着某种生活”）（谓语）mysterious lives of their own（它们）自己的神秘生活方式as well. 又（状语）
★as well 也, 又, 同样=too • ★adj+ly=adv. • Eg. quiet-quietly.,careful-carefully • (adj can modify a noun,but adv.is used to modify the verbs.) • The engine is very quiet. • The engine runs quietly in the workshop. • 但是一些自身以ly结尾的常用形容词经常被误认为副词friendly,lovely,ugly • She spoke to me in a friendly way.
Of one’s own属于个人的，自己的 • She would rather have a room of her own than sleep with hersister. • 她宁愿有一间自己的房间，而不愿和他姐姐谁在一起。 • An experience of his own confirmed this. 他自己的经历证实了这一点。 • On one’s own独自，靠自己的力量（作状语）；突出，无人与之相比 • He got the job on his own. 他靠自己找到了这份工作。 • For craftsmanship, Smith is on his own. 就手艺来说，史密斯是无人与之相比的。 • Lead mysterious lives=live mysterious lives 过神秘的生活 • Life 是lead 的同源宾语，（宾语与动词同源的名词）， 这种宾语用在某些不及物动词之后，并往往由定语所修饰。同源宾语在音韵上给人以和谐之感，在修辞上给人以平衡之感。如： • Although we lived our lives together, I know there was a barrier between us. • 虽然我们生活在一起，但我们之间隔着一道障碍。 • As he slept he dreamed a dream. 他睡觉时做了一个梦。 • They fought a hard fight. 他们进行了一场苦斗。 • He breathed his last breath. 他咽了最后一口气。
They never become submissive like dogs and horses. 它们从不像狗和马那样顺从。They 它们（主语）never 从不（状语）become 变得（系动词） submissive 顺从（表语）like dogs and horses. 像狗和马一样（状语）
3.As a result, humans have learned to respect feline independence.结果是人们已经学会尊重猫的独立性As a result, 结果（状语）humans 人们（主语）have learned已经学会（谓语）to respect feline independence. 尊重猫的独立性（宾语）respect n.尊敬, 敬重 （spect-, pect为拉丁语词根，意思是“look”）re-表示“又, 再”之义联想记忆：inspect vt.检查, 视察v.检查
★as a result 结果 • Jobs are hard to get and, as a result, more young people want to continue their education. • 由于工作很难找，更多的年轻人想继续学习。 • He slipped and broke his leg. As a result, he will have to be away from school for twoor three months.他摔了一跤，把腿给折断了。因此，他将两三个月不能去上学。 • As a result of 由于…的结果，作为…的结果，由…引起的 • Meanwhile other events had occurred as a result of this war.由于这场战争，同时发生了其他一些事情。 • He is unable to go to work as a result of the fall from his horse. • 他从马上摔下来，结果不能去上班。 • ★have learned to 学会了, 习惯了People have learned to expect(盼望) that trains are punctual. Children have learned to expect(认为) that their parents are very able.
4.Most cats remainsuspicious of humans all their lives. 在它们的一生中，大多数猫都对人存有戒心。Most cats大多数猫（主语）remain 保持（系动词）suspicious of humans对人存有戒心（表语）all their lives. 一生（状语）
★be suspicious of/about… 对……表示怀疑, 存有戒心(怀疑不是真的，不是好的) • He became suspicious of her intention. • He was suspicious of the new theory. • (he tended to believe the theory will not work怀疑不成功) • The policeman cast a suspicious look at the stranger. • 警察用猜疑的目光瞟了陌生人一眼。 • The stranger seems to be suspicious. 那个陌生人似乎很可疑。 • He was doubtful about the new theory. (he was uncertain about the theory是否能成功无法肯定) • ★remain vi. 把……留给，把……留下；尚有，仍旧，继续 • His friends have done their best to point out his errors but he remains silent. • Language was, is, and will remain the chief means of exchange of ideas.语言过去是、现在是、将来仍将是交流思想的主要工具。
5.One of the thingsthat fascinaes us most about cats is the popular beliefthat they have nine lives.最使我们感兴趣的一件事情就是一种通俗的信念--猫有九条命。 • One of the things that fascinates us most about cats最使我们感兴趣的事情（主语）其中that fascinates us most about cats是一个定语从句：that （引导词，主语）fascinates（谓语）us （宾语）most（状）about cats（状）is 系动the popular belief通俗的信念（状语）belief n.(pl. beliefs)相信; 信以为真(宗教)信仰; 信心;信条，信念; 意见that they have nine lives. 同位语从句that 引导词they 它们（主语）have 有（谓语）nine lives 九条命（宾语）
6.Apparently, there is a good deal of truth in this idea. 显然，这种说法里面包含着许多真实性。Apparently, 显然there is 有（谓语）a good deal of truth 许多真实性（主语） in this idea. 这种说法里面 （状语）
apparently adv. 显然地（语气不是非常确定，= It seems that…） • Apparently he never wrote a letter to her. • 显然，他一封信也没给她写。 • Apparently they‘re intending to put up the price of water. 看来他们要提高水费了。 • a good deal of +不可数名词,相当于a large sum of,a great amount of • A great many/a good many/a large number of +可数名词 • Plenty of/ a large quantity of/ a lot of +不可数名词/可数名词
7.A cat’s ability to survive falls is based on fact. 简单句 • 猫在跌落时能够大难不死是有事实作为依据的。A cat‘s ability to survive falls猫在跌落时能够大难不死（主语）其中to survive falls 不定式短语，作定语 • Is 系动词 • based on fact. 有事实为依据的（表语）
★survive v. 幸免于, 幸存, 生还① vt. 比……活得长His wife survived him by three years.② vt./vi…中逃生，经……后继续存在Many buildings survived the earthquake.=many building survived in the earthquake. • Only one person survived the accident.=only one person survived in the accident. • ③ vi. 活下来，幸存Four of their children had died as babies and the fifth survived.★fall n.堕落, 落下, 下降★be based on 基于……基础之上base sth. on… 把某事建立在……基础之上We base the theory on the fact. 我们把这理论建立在事实的基础之上。The theory is based on fact. 这理论是建立在事实基础上的。
8 Recently the New York Animal Medical Center made a study of 132 catsover a period of five months. 最近，纽约动物医疗中心对132只猫进行了为期5个月的综合研究。 • Recently 最近（状语）the New York Animal Medical Center纽约动物医疗中心 （主语）made 做了（谓语）a study of 132 cats 132只猫的综合研究over a period of five months. 为期5个月的 (状语) period n.时期, 学时, 节, 句点, 周期
9 All these cats had one experiencein common: they had fallenoff high buildings, yet only eight of them died from shock or injuries.所有这些猫有一个共同的经历：它们都曾从高层建筑上摔下来过，但只有其中的8只猫死于震荡或跌伤。 • All these cats所有这些猫（主语）had 有（谓语）one experiencein common:一个共同的经历（宾语） （have … in common 有共同之处）they 它们（主语）had fallen曾摔下来过（谓语，完成时态，fall off v.下降, 跌落, 减少, 衰退, 离开）off high buildings 从高层建筑上离开yet only 但只有（状语）eight of them其中的8只猫（主语）died 死（谓语）from shock or injuries. 由于震荡或跌伤。（状语）
★in common = the same 共同的，公有的 • have sth in common with sb/sth=the same as sb/sth • You two have got a lot in common. • He had a lot in common with one of my friends. • common with 与……一样In common with many other companies, we advertise in local press.像许多其他公司那样，我们也在地方报纸上登广告。★fall off 坠落，掉落
★die vi. 死 His father has been dead for 3 years.(die vi. 不可用表示有连续时间的状语连) • 死于疾病：die of illness / disease / hunger / thirst,自然的死亡用of,die of… 死于（疾病、饥饿等）Many of them died of starvation. • die from…死于非自然原因：die from shock / injures / wound, 用from, 死于（创伤、事故等） The soldier died from a wound in the breast.(外因) • die through… 死于（一般性原因）In some poorest regions many children died through lack of proper nourishment.在一些极贫困地区，许多儿童因缺乏必要的营养而死去。die for… 为……献身/牺牲/捐躯Losts of them died for the cause of liberation. • 许多人为解放事业而献身。 • 有时die of和die for被用来表达某种极度渴望的心情，夸张用语使用，多用于口语中，且需用现在进行时态表达： • We are all dying of curiosity. 我们都好奇得要命。die off相继死去（主语必须为复数）The flowers are dying off because there has been no rain.当强调死于横祸或突发事件时，通常用kill，而非die。 He was killed in a motor accident.
10 Of course, New York is the ideal placefor such an interesting study, because there isno shortage of tall buildings. 当然，纽约是进行这种有趣的试验的一个理想的地方，因为那里根本不缺乏高楼大厦。 Of course, 当然（状语）New York 纽约（主语）is 是（系动词）the ideal place理想的地方（表语）for such an interesting study, 进行这种有趣的试验的（状语）because there isno shortage of tall buildings. （状语从句）because 因为（引导词）there is有（谓语）no shortage of tall buildings. 不缺乏高楼（主语）
shortage（n. 不足, 缺乏）= lack（n. 缺乏, 短缺），两个词都和of搭配 • Shortage of money led to the failure of the experiments. 资金缺乏导致实验的失败。 • The nation was experiencing a shortage of food./food shortage. • The lad （小伙子）is good but is short on brains.(缺脑子) • （是家里的智多星I am the brain of my family.） • The rain came in for want of tiles on roof. • 房上缺瓦都漏雨了 • I am pressed for time and money.我缺钱缺时间
11There are plenty of high-rise windowsills to fall from!=fall off • Plenty of 足够的，很多的（可修饰可数名词，也可修饰不可数名词；常用于肯定句中，疑问句或否定句中常用enough） • We have plenty of food for the holidays. • Have you enough food for the holidays?
12 One cat, Sabrina, fell 32 storeys, yet only suffered froma broken tooth. 有一只叫萨伯瑞的猫从32层楼上掉下来，但只摔断一颗牙。 • suffer from… 遭受……痛苦，患……，以……为患A lot of people in the world are suffering from terrible disease.suffer • ① vt. 忍受，遭受（精神或肉体的痛苦，常与pain痛苦，loss损失，defeat失败，punishment惩罚，wrong冤屈，hardship困苦，torture折磨等词搭配）He suffered a lot of discomfort. • ② vi.（from）患，以……为患 • He suffered from a bad headache. Her health suffers from overwork.健康不佳由于工作劳累 • The patient complained that he had been suffering from repeated stomach ache. Almost every country suffered from a serious economic crisis at that time.③ vi.（for）因……而倒霉，受……之患She’s sure to suffer for her stubbornness. 她这样顽固，将来一定会吃苦头儿。
13.Cats behave like well-trained paratroopers,’ a doctor said • Cats behave like well-trained paratroopers.' a doctor said. “猫就像训练有素的跳伞队员，” 一位医生说。Cats 猫（主语）behave 行为（谓语）like well-trained paratroopers 像训练有素的跳伞队员（状语） • ★behave like = act like • ★well-trained训练很好的，训练有素的adj.(adv+ved)=those who are trained very well经受住良好训练的 • well-known=sth that is known very well • well-meant=sth that is meant very well本意好的，出于善意的 • well-educated 受过良好教育的 well-bred 有涵养的，有教养的 well-behaved行为规矩的 well-dressed 穿着得体的，讲究的 well-read 博学的 • newly-built新建的well-decorated 装饰漂亮的
14 seems看起来（系动词）that the further cats fall, the less they are likely to injure themselves.是一个表语从句
14.It seems that the further cats fall, the less they are likely to injure themselves. 看起来，猫跌落的距离越长，它们就越不会伤害自己。 • Seems 为系动词，引导表语从句，表语从句中又包含比较状语从句。 • ★the …the … 越……越……，表示当一方变化时另一方也随之变化（用定冠词the +形容词或副词的比较级）翻译成汉语时，先译从句，后译主句。 • More haste, less speed. • The harder you study English, the better you can learn it. The more you eat, the fatter you will be.-er and –er结构：表达持续不断的变化Debbie is growing fast; she’s getting taller and taller. Computers are becoming more and more complicated.（不能说成more complicated and more complicated）
It seems that npbody knew what had happened. • It would seem (=It seems) that something is wrong. • It seemed to Jim that Amy was worried about something. • ★seem vi. 好象，似乎① seem +形容词/to be Even minor problems seem important. • 甚至微不足道的小问题似乎也重要。② seem +名词短语It seemed (to be) a long time before the food came. What seems to be the trouble?③ seem +动词不定式/从句The experiments seem to prove that sugar is not very good for you. It seemed as though the war had ended.
15.In a long drop, they reach speeds of 60 miles an hour and more. 在一个长长的跌落过程中，它们可以达到每小时60里甚至更快的速度。In a long drop, 在一个长长的跌落过程中，(状语)they 它们（主语）reach 达到（谓语）speeds of 60 miles an hour and more. 每小时60里甚至更快的速度（宾语） • and more 甚至更多（= more than 60 miles an hour）
16 At high speeds, falling cats have time to relax. 在高速下落中，猫有时间放松自己。17 They stretch outtheir legslike flying squirrels. 它们伸展四肢，就像飞行中的松鼠一样。 ）
stretch out 充分伸展 • stretch v. 伸展,张开,延伸 • The desert stretched away into the distance. 沙漠一直延伸到远方。 • I got out of the bed and had a good stretch我起床后舒服地伸了个懒腰。 • Stretch oneself 伸懒腰，伸直身子
18 This increases their air-resistance and reduces the shock of impactwhen they hit the ground. 这样就加大了空气阻力，并减少了它们着地时冲击力带来的震动。 • 这是一个由and连接的并列句：This increases their air-resistance这样就加大了空气阻力，and 并reduces the shock of impactwhen they hit the ground. 减少了它们着地时冲击力带来的震动。
第一部分：This 这（主语）increases 增加（谓语）their air-resistance 空气阻力（宾语） 第二部分：reduces 减少（谓语）the shock of impact着地的冲击力（宾语）when they hit the ground当它们着地时（状语从句）