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A Continuum of Careers in Education. Presentation for EDSC 110, The Teaching Experience: Exploration Future Teachers Program California State University Fullerton. Developed by V. Costa, Secondary Education, for EDSC 110. Careers in Education.

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a continuum of careers in education

A Continuum of Careers in Education

Presentation for EDSC 110, The Teaching Experience: Exploration

Future Teachers Program

California State University Fullerton

Developed by V. Costa, Secondary Education, for EDSC 110.

careers in education
Careers in Education

This presentation will explore different careers in education—looking at the continuum from the perspective of education required (from Associate to Graduate Degrees):

  • Preschool Teaching
  • Paraprofessional Teaching
  • Educational Careers in K-12 Settings
    • Elementary School
    • Secondary School
    • Special Education
    • School Administrators, Nurses, Librarians, Reading Specialists, and Counselors
  • Teaching at the University Level
    • Community College
    • University Level
careers in education that require an associate degree or less

Careers in Education that Require an Associate Degree (or Less)

An Associate Degree is an academic degree available from community colleges and some universities based on a course of study usually completed in two years.

what does a preschool teacher do
What Does a Preschool Teacher Do?

A preschool teacher works with young children in a child development facility, such as a preschool, day care center, public or private elementary school, or employer sponsored center. The preschool teacher plays an important role in young children’s development and must be able to:

  • Establish and maintain a safe, healthy learning environment,
  • Advance children’s physical and intellectual competence,
  • Support children’s social and emotional development,
  • Establish positive and productive relationships with families, and
  • Implement a purposeful program responsive to children’s needs.

Source: Beaty, J. (2000). Skills for preschool teachers. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

a preschool teacher
A Preschool Teacher . . .
  • Plans the physical space.
  • Schedules the day to include active and quiet activities, large and small group activities, predictable and flexible activities, familiar and novel activities, and indoor and outdoor activities.
  • Prepares materials and plans activities to support physical development, intellectual development, social development, and emotional development.
  • Understands the importance of play in early childhood programs and schedules opportunities for play.
  • Is cognizant of and sensitive to the individual needs of children.
  • Maintains positive discipline based on mutual respect.
  • Communicates with families.
what is required to be a preschool professional
What is required to be a Preschool Professional?

Under Title 5 regulations, those who work in state-contracted and state-funded full-day child development program or half-day preschools must hold a Child Development Permit. Several levels of permit exist, each with specific education and experience requirements.

Continued on following page


Source: http://www.childdevelopment.org/images/matrix.pdf Please consult for details and alternative qualifications.

what does a paraprofessional do
WhatDoes a Paraprofessional Do?
  • A paraprofessional is a school employee:
    • whose position is either instructional in nature or who delivers other direct services to students and/or their parents; and
    • who works under the supervision of teachers or other professional staff who have the ultimate responsibility for the design, implementation and evaluation of education and related services programs and student progress.
  • Examples include: educational aide, special education aide, teacher assistant, pupil service aide, library aide, child development aide, and physical education aide
what is required to be a highly qualified paraprofessional
What is Required to be a “Highly Qualified” Paraprofessional?
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also known as The No Child Left Behind Act, requires that all paraprofessionals who work in programs funded by Title I prove that they are “highly qualified.” There are three ways that paraprofessionals may prove they are highly qualified:
    • Complete an associate degree OR
    • Complete two years of college OR
    • Demonstrate knowledge of reading, writing, math, and the ability to assist in instructing these subjects. This demonstration must be met through a state or local academic assessment, which does not necessarily mean a pencil and paper test.
  • See more at:
    • Are you A Highly Qualified Paraprofessional? http://www.nea.org/esphome/issues/eseapara-qualified.html
what does an elementary or secondary teacher do
What Does an Elementary or Secondary Teacher Do?

The teacher's job is to assure that all students learn the basic and essential skills at each grade level.  Responsibilities include:

Instructional Process

  • Plans and implements a program of instruction that adheres to the district goals and objectives.
  • Creates appropriate lesson plans that provide for effective teaching and maximizes time on task.
  • Encourages student enthusiasm for the learning process and the development of good study habits.

Classroom Management

  • Develops, in accordance with district school guidelines, reasonable rules of classroom behavior and appropriate techniques that are consistently applied.
  • Shares responsibility during the school day for the supervision of students in all areas of the school.

Professional Growth

  • Continues professional growth through workshops, seminars, and/or advanced course work.
  • Attends staff, department, and committee meetings as required.

Student Evaluation

  • Evaluates accomplishments of students on a regular basis using multiple assessment methods such as teacher made tests, samples of students' work, mastery skills check lists, criterion-referenced tests and norm-referenced tests.
  • Makes appropriate adjustments in the instructional program and as required by the principal.
what is required to be a highly qualified teacher
What is Required to Be a “Highly Qualified” Teacher?
  • Multiple Subject for Elementary Teaching
    • Job requirements include
      • a current Multiple Subject Credential;
      • undergraduate degree in Liberal Studies, Child Development, or other academic discipline
      • Demonstrated expertise through examination of competence in the subjects taught in the elementary classroom: Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Science, Visual and Performing Arts, and Physical Education.
    • Qualified to teach K-12in a self-contained setting, but usually teaches in K-6 classrooms; teaches all subject areas appropriate for the elementary classroom
what is required to be a highly qualified teacher1
What is Required to Be a “Highly Qualified” Teacher?
  • Single Subject for Secondary Teaching
    • Job requirements include
      • Current Single Subject Credential;
      • Undergraduate degree in an academic discipline
      • Demonstrated expertise through examination or university course completion of competence in content areas of the single subject credential
    • Qualified to teach in the subject area in single subject classrooms, usually grades 6-12; teaches several levels of courses in one subject area
what is required to be a highly qualified teacher2
What is Required to Be a “Highly Qualified” Teacher?
  • In Special Education Settings
    • Job requirements include
      • a current Education Specialist Credential in Mild/Moderate, Moderate/Severe, or Early Childhood
      • a current Multiple or Single Subject Credential
      • undergraduate degree in academic discipline
      • Demonstrated expertise by examination or university course completion of content area of the multiple or single subject credential
    • Qualified to teach special education students in K-12 settings as appropriate to the credential area
what is special education
What is Special Education?
  • Special Education is specially designed instruction that often incorporates related services to meet the educational, social emotional, and vocational needs of young children and students with disabilities.
  • Students who meet the disability qualifications and are eligible for services are placed in either mild/moderate and moderate/severe settings. Placement is determined by the degree, amount and intensity of the services needed based upon multidisciplinary assessment results.
characteristics of placements and students
Characteristics of Placements and Students
    • Most students who are placed in the mild moderate setting have a single qualifying disability. They may require one or more specialized services provided within the school district. The mild part of mild moderate would be an RSP (Resource Specialist Program) setting.
    • The moderate part of moderate severe would be a full-inclusion setting with dual enrollment in general education and special education or a Special Day Class for the Severe. Often, these students have multiple challenges and require services beyond the capabilities of their home school or district. The severe part of Moderate-Severe could be services provided in a hospital, home or institution.
    • Early Childhood consists of 0-3, infant toddler where the focus is on the natural environment (usually the home) and the goals of the parents for their infant. At 3-5 years of age, the student transitions to preschool, where socialization and academics are stressed based upon the child's strengths and needs.
what does an education administrator do
What Does an EducationAdministrator Do?
  • Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators, usually called principals.
  • Education administrators may
    • provide instructional leadership;
    • manage the day-to-day activities in schools, preschools, daycare centers, and colleges and universities; and/or
    • direct the educational programs of businesses, correctional institutions, museums, and job training and community service organizations.
  • Job requirements
    • Master’s Degree, Administrative Credential, Teaching Credential, and public school experience
  • See more information at:
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook: Education Administrators http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos007.htm
what does a school nurse do
What Does a School Nurse Do?
  • School Nurses, who are the primary health care providers within the educational environment, promote each student's attainment of optimum health status, physical and mental, to achieve their fullest potential as a learner and a person.
  • What do school nurses provide that no one else in the school district can?
    • Assess health needs
    • Teach and promote health practices
    • Provide counseling, primary health care, emergency care, crisis management, and referrals
    • Provide communicable disease control
    • Access community resources
    • Perform mandated health screenings
    • Perform special health care procedures, i.e., IV therapy, catheterization, tube feedings
  • A School Nurse:
    • Is a Registered Nurse (R.N.)
    • Has a baccalaureate degree
    • Has an additional year of post graduate education related to school health issues
    • Is credentialed by the Commission on Teacher Credentialing
  • See more information at:
    • Profile of a School Nurse, San Diego City Schools http://www2.sandi.net/health/newweb/profile.html
    • California School Nurses Organization http://www.csno.org/
what does a school counselor do
What Does a School Counselor Do?
  • Educational, vocational, and school counselorsprovide individuals and groups with career and educational counseling.
  • They work with students, including those with academic and social development problems and those with special needs. They:
    • advocate for students and work with other individuals and organizations to promote the academic, career, personal, and social development of children and youths.
    • help students evaluate their abilities, interests, talents, and personality characteristics in order to develop realistic academic and career goals.
    • use interviews, counseling sessions, interest and aptitude assessment tests, and other methods to evaluate and advise students.
    • operate career information centers and career education programs.
    • advise students regarding college majors, admission requirements, entrance exams, financial aid, trade or technical schools, and apprenticeship programs.
    • counsel and support students with social or emotional problems
    • help students develop job search skills, such as resume writing and interviewing techniques.
  • Job requirements include
    • Masters Degree and Credential
  • See more information at:
    • Occupation Outlook Handbook, School Counselors http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos067.htm
what does a school library media specialist do
What Does a School Library Media Specialist Do?
  • Today's school library media specialist works with both students and teachers to
    • facilitate access to information in a wide variety of formats,
    • instruct students and teachers how to acquire, evaluate and use information and the technology needed in this process, and
    • introduce children and young adults to literature and other resources to broaden their horizons.
  • As a collaborator, change agent, and leader, the school library media specialist develops, promotes and implements a program that will help prepare students to be effective users of ideas and information, a lifelong skill.
  • Job requirements include
    • Master’s Degree in Library Science and Teaching Credential
  • See more information at:
    • School Library Media Specialist http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aasleducation/recruitmentlib/learningabout/learningabout.htm
what does a reading specialist do
What does a Reading Specialist do?
  • Reading Specialists support literacy development of preschool, K-12, and community college and university students through the following activities:
    • Provide student assessment in reading, and student instruction that is responsive to the assessment.
    • Develop, implement and adapt reading instruction, and assist teachers with respect to the prevention and intervention of reading difficulties.
    • Develop, implement and adapt instruction, and assist teachers, to enable all students to read and comprehend the content of the curriculum.
  • Employment opportunities for reading/language arts specialists are excellent. 
    • Reading has become a priority in California schools and districts and the need for specialists at elementary, middle, and high school levels is significant. 
    • In addition, the demand for classroom teachers with a background in reading and the language arts is strong.
    • There is also an increased need for professionals to teach reading at the community college level. 
  • Job requirements include
    • Master’s Degree, Reading Specialist Credential, and Teaching Credential
  • See more information at:
    • Reading Educators’ Guild http://www.readingeducatorsguild.org/
what does a curriculum specialist do
What does a Curriculum Specialist do?
  • Curriculum specialists help improve education through the following activities:
    • developing curricula
    • selecting textbooks and other materials
    • training teachers
    • assessing educational programs
    • assist in implementing new technology
  • Curriculum Specialist often specialize in specific subjects, such as reading, language arts, mathematics, or social studies.
  • Job requirements include
    • A bachelor’s degree, teaching credential and teaching experience are usually required, but a graduate degree is preferred.
  • See more information at:
    • Instructional Coordinators, Occupation Outlook Handbookhttp://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos269.htm
what does a community college instructor do
What Does a Community College Instructor Do?
  • First, some facts about Community Colleges:
    • There are over 1,200 public and private two-year colleges, and 90% of the nation's population is within commuting distance of one.
    • Annually, 6.5 million students enroll in two-year institutions
    • Generally, community colleges have three main divisions: continuing education, technical education, and university transfer
  • Community College faculty may be full or part-time. Full-time faculty usually teach 5 classes each semester and participate on faculty committees.
  • Job requirements include
    • MA/MS in the academic discipline you teach.
  • See more information at
    • Teachers, Postsecondary, Occupational Outlook Handbook http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos066.htm
what does a university professor do
What Does a University Professor Do?
  • University Professors perform some or all of the following duties:
    • Teach one or more university subjects to undergraduate and graduate students
    • Prepare, administer and grade examinations, laboratory assignments and reports
    • Direct research programs of graduate students and advise on research matters
    • Conduct research in field of specialization and publish findings in scholarly journals or books
    • May serve on faculty committees dealing with such matters as curriculum planning and degree requirements, and perform a variety of administrative duties
    • May represent their universities as speakers and guest lecturers
    • May provide professional consultative services to government, industry and private individuals.
  • Job requirements include
    • doctorate degree in the field of specialization; licenses may also be required for professors in professionally regulated fields
  • For more information, see
    • Postsecondary Teacher Job Outlook, Career Advantage http://www.careeradvantage.org/university_of_phoenix_post_secondary_teacher_job_outlook.html
activity 1 ask an educator
Activity 1: Ask an Educator
  • Interview an educator other than a classroom teacher. Summarize your interview findings in your Blue Book.
  • Ask questions such as:
      • Why did you become an educator?
      • What education did you have?
      • How is your job rewarding? What interesting and exciting experiences have you had because of your job?
      • What is the biggest drawback in your job?
      • What advice to you have for someone who is considering a career in your field?
activity 2 reflect on learning
Activity 2: Reflect on Learning

This presentation focused on the different careers in education. Which careers interest you most and why?

  • Choose two careers and identify two reasons why these careers would be interesting for you. Record this information in your Blue Book.
activity 2 find out more
Activity 2: Find Out More
  • Choose a career other than K-12 classroom teaching:
    • Preschool teaching
    • Paraprofessional
    • Educational administration
    • School Nursing
    • School Counselor
    • Reading Specialist
    • School Librarian
    • Community College Instructor
    • University Faculty Member
  • Review the resources provided in the presentation or on the next two slides.
  • In your Blue Book, summarize what you’ve learned about this career in education.
sources and additional information
Sources and Additional Information
  • Preschool Teaching
    • Child Development Training Consortium
      • http://www.childdevelopment.org/
    • National Association for the Education of Young Children
      • http://www.naeyc.org
  • Paraprofessional Teaching
    • National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals
      • http://www.nrcpara.org/
    • Paraprofessional Handbook
      • http://dpi.wi.gov/cal/pdf/paraprofessional.pdf
    • The Special Education Paraeducator
      • http://www.geocities.com/soozeej/SpEdPara.htm
sources and additional information1
Sources and Additional Information
  • K-12 Teaching
    • Secondary School Student Information on Teaching (Centers for Careers in Teaching, Cal State Fullerton)
      • http://www.fullerton.edu/cct/HS_Info/hsinfoindex.htm
    • Academic Tools for Future Elementary Teachers
      • http://www.fullerton.edu/cct/Mult_Subj/msacadtools.htm
    • Academic Tools for Future Middle and High School Teachers
      • http://www.fullerton.edu/cct/Single_Subj/ssacadtools.htm
    • College Board Careers: Education
      • http://www.collegeboard.com/csearch/majors_careers/profiles/majors/13.0101.html
    • Tips on Becoming a Teacher (includes information on all 50 states)
      • http://www.adprima.com/tipson.htm
    • Teacher Job Description
      • http://www.polk-fl.net/jobs/Job_Fair/job_descrip.htm
  • Special Education
    • College Board Careers: Special Education Teachers
      • http://www.collegeboard.com/csearch/majors_careers/profiles/careers/105881.html
    • Special Educators
      • http://www.specialedcareers.org/career_choices/profiles/professions/special_edu.html
sources and additional information2
Sources and Additional Information
  • General
    • Careers in Education
      • http://careerservices.rutgers.edu/Meducation.html
  • Curriculum Specialist
    • U.S. Department of Labor
      • http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos269.htm
  • Reading Specialist
    • CSUF Department of Reading Education
      • http://ed.fullerton.edu/reading/
  • Community College Teaching
    • Teaching in the Community College: A Possible Road to Be Taken
      • http://www.mla.org/ade/bulletin/n111/111020.htm
    • My Philosophy of Teaching at a Community College
      • http://quinnell.us/personal/essay/teaching.html
  • University Teaching
    • Becoming a University Professor
      • http://www.jyi.org/SCC/Article.php?articleNum=87