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ORIGINS OF INDIAN REMOVAL. IN THE LATE 1780S U.S. OFFICIALS BEGAN TO URGE THE CHEROKEES TO ABANDON HUNTING AND THEIR TRADITIONAL WAYS OF LIFE AND TO INSTEAD LEARN HOW TO LIVE, WORSHIP, AND FARM LIKE CHRISTIAN AMERICAN YEOMEN.

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origins of indian removal
ORIGINS OF INDIAN REMOVAL
  • IN THE LATE 1780S U.S. OFFICIALS BEGAN TO URGE THE CHEROKEES TO ABANDON HUNTING AND THEIR TRADITIONAL WAYS OF LIFE AND TO INSTEAD LEARN HOW TO LIVE, WORSHIP, AND FARM LIKE CHRISTIAN AMERICAN YEOMEN.
  • DESPITE CHEROKEE EFFORTS TO BECOME FARMERS AND “CIVILIZED” IN THE WHITE SETTLERS’ MINDS, THEY CONTINUED TO STRUGGLE AGAINST SETTLER ENCROACHMENT UPON THEIR LANDS.
georgia compact of 1802
GEORGIA COMPACT OF 1802

THOMAS JEFFERSON MADE A COMPACT WITH THE STATE OF

GEORGIA IN 1802 TO ASSIST GEORGIA REMOVE ITS CHEROKEE

INDIANS IF THE STATE AGREED TO EXTINGUISH ITS CLAIMS TO

WESTERN LANDS (PRESENT DAY ALABAMA AND MISSISSIPPI).

TO ASSIST IN BRINGING PRESSURES FOR REMOVAL THE STATE OF

GEORGIA ADOPTED A NUMBER OF REPRESSIVE ACTS DEPRIVING

INDIANS OF PREVIOUSLY RECOGNIZED RIGHTS INCLUDING THE

OPPORTUNITY TO TESTIFY IN COURT AS WELL AS LEGISLATION

PROVIDING FOR A LOTTERY FOR DISTRIBUTION TO WHITES OF

INDIAN LANDS HISTORICALLY OWNED AND PRESENTLY OCCUPIED

BY THE CHEROKEES.

the supreme court historical society
The Supreme Court Historical Society

Read the following article written by Rennard J. and William M. Strickland regarding “The Court and the Trail of Tears.”

See the following website:

www.supremecourthistory.org/04_library/

subs_volumes/04_c15_e.html

the cherokee phoenix
The Cherokee Phoenix

“Present Crisis in the Condition

of the American Indians”

No. XX

Discusses the obligations of the Georgia

Compact of 1802

http://www.wcu.edu/library/

CherokeePhoenix/Vol2/no40/

pg1col5cPg2col4b.htm

confederation era treaties
Confederation Era Treaties
  • BRITISH PEACE TREATY OF 1783 ABANDONED INDIAN ALLIES
  • INITIAL AMERICAN POLICY TREATED ALL INDIAN TRIBES, EVEN FORMER ALLIES, AS CONQUERED PEOPLES AND DICTATED TERMS
    • ABANDONED POLICY DUE TO INDIAN RESISTANCE
  • 1784 -TREATY OF FORT STANWIX WITH ONEIDA AND TUSCARORA
  • 1785-86 - TREATIES OF HOPEWELL WITH CHEROKEE, CHOCTAW, CHICKASAW
  • 1785-89 - TREATIES WITH SHAWNEE, WYANDOTT, DELAWARE, CHIPPEWA, OTTAWA
emergence of indian department
EMERGENCE OF INDIAN DEPARTMENT
  • WAR DEPARTMENT APPOINTED INDIAN AGENTS
  • OFFICE OF INDIAN TRADE (1806)
  • BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS (1824)
  • FORMALIZED BY CONGRESS IN WAR DEPARTMENT (1832)
  • TRANSFERRED TO DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (1849)
new madrid earthquakes 1811 1812
NEW MADRID EARTHQUAKES, 1811-1812
  • In the past three centuries, major earthquakes outside of California and Alaska generally occurred in sparsely-settled areas, and damage and fatalities were largely minimal. But some took place in areas that have since been heavily built up.
  • Among them are three earthquakes that occurred in 1811 and 1812 near New Madrid, Missouri. They are among the Great Earthquakes of Known History, affecting the topography more than any other earthquake on the North American continent.
  • Judging from their effects, they were of a magnitude of 8.0or higher on the Richter Scale. They were felt over the entire United States outside of the Pacific coast. Large areas sank into the earth, new lakes were formed, the course of the Mississippi River was changed, and forests were destroyed over an area of 150,000 acres.
developments in indian country
DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIAN COUNTRY
  • CHEROKEES AND OTHER TRIBES HELD RICH AGRICULTURAL LANDS
  • CHEROKEE CONSTITUTION ADOPTED IN 1827
  • GOLD DISCOVERED IN CHEROKEE COUNTRY IN 1829
  • ACTIVE MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES IN CHEROKEE COUNTRY THROUGH BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONARIES
james vann
JAMES VANN
  • BORN TO A SCOTS TRADER NAMED VANN AND A CHEROKEE WOMAN, WAHLI, IN 1768, JAMES VANN BECAME AN INFLUENTIAL CHEROKEE WITH VARIOUS BUSINESSES ALONG THE FEDERAL ROAD WHICH FORKED THROUGH THE CHEROKEE NATION IN THE EARLY 1800s.
education of the cherokee
EDUCATION OF THE CHEROKEE
  • WHILE THE MORAVIANS, WHO ESTABLISHED SPRINGPLACE MORAVIAN MISSION, PRIMARILY WANTED TO BRING THE GOSPEL TO THE CHEROKEE, JAMES VANN FOCUSED UPON THE EDUCATION OF CHEROKEE CHILDREN.
  • JAMES VANN CONTRIBUTED TO THE EDUCATION OF MEN AND WOMEN WHO LATER BECAME LEADERS IN THE CHEROKEE NATION—ELIAS BOUDINOT, JOHN BOUDINOT, JOHN RIDGE, SARAH RIDGE, STAND WAITIE AND JOSEPH VANN.
james vann killed 1809
JAMES VANN KILLED, 1809
  • SHOT BY AN UNIDENTIFIED MURDERER IN 1809, JAMES VANN WILLED HIS ENTIRE ESTATE TO HIS ELEVEN-YEAR-OLD SON, JOSEPH.
  • THE COUNCIL OF CHIEFS DECLARED THIS UNFAIR AND INTERVENED TO GIVE AT LEAST A FEW SLAVES AND LIVESTOCK TO THE REMAINING VANN CHILDREN AND WIDOWS (EIGHT CONSORTS AND NINE CHILDREN).
rich joe vann
“RICH JOE” VANN
  • SETTLED IN 1814, JAMES VANN’S ESTATE AWARDED JOSEPH VANN THE HOUSE, LAND AND ALL OF HIS FATHER’S BUSINESSES.
  • “RICH JOE” VANN BECAME AN EVEN BETTER BUSINESSMAN THAN HIS FATHER AND AN INSTRUMENTAL VOICE IN THE CHEROKEE LEGISLATURE.
gold in georgia
GOLD IN GEORGIA

Although gold was found all the way from

Virginia to Alabama, a particularly rich belt

was discovered on Cherokee Indian land in

Georgia, near what was to become

Dahlonega, in 1828, causing a huge influx

of miners.

First the frontier town of Auraria sprang up

around the mines, then nearby Dahlonega

(from the Cherokee language, meaning

"yellow money") edged her out as the

newly-formed Lumpkin County seat.

Thousands of gold seekers flooded into

North Georgia between 1828 to 1847 starting

the nation’s first major gold rush.

slide15

No documented evidence for gold in Georgia is found until August 1, 1829, when a Milledgeville newspaper, the Georgia Journal, ran the following notice.

    • GOLD.—A gentleman of the first respectability in Habersham county, writes us thus under date of 22d July: "Two gold mines have just been discovered in
    • this county, and preparations are making to bring
    • these hidden treasures of the earth to use." So it appears that what we long anticipated has come
    • to pass at last, namely, that the gold region of
    • North and South Carolina, would be found to extend
    • into Georgia.
the first shiners
THE FIRST “SHINERS”
  • THE FIRST COINS, EIGHTY HALF-EAGLES, WERE STRUCK BY THE MINT ON APRIL 21, 1838.
  • Because of a high silver content, these first coins had a slightly different color (often described as green gold), when compared to the ones minted at Philadelphia, but were nonetheless of good quality. The first Dahlonega coins to be assayed in February 1839 met the legal requirements.
placer mining
PLACER MINING

DEPOSIT MINING

OR

PLACER MINING

Refers to gold that has washed down from the hillsides and settled along mountain streams. At first, miners found gold easily by dredging the rivers and looking for gold along the riverbanks.

georgia land lottery
GEORGIA LAND LOTTERY

This is an engraving of the Georgia land lottery, circa 1830s

chief vann house
CHIEF VANN HOUSE

Called the "Showplace of the Cherokee Nation", this two-story classic brick mansion was built by Chief James Vann in 1804.

Decorated with beautiful Cherokee hand carvings done in natural colors of blue, red, green and yellow, the home features a cantilevered stairway and many fine antiques.

reference source
REFERENCE SOURCE

Williams, David. The Georgia Gold Rush: Twenty-Niners, Cherokees, and Gold Fever (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993).