Indian Removal The Trail of Tears
Choctaw • Those that left in the winter often lacked blankets and warm clothing. • Those that left in the summer fell victim to cholera and other diseases. • Perhaps 4000 Choctaw died of Cholera. • Hundreds died of exposure, hunger and accidents.
Chickasaw • Fared better on the trail. • War Department learned from Choctaw removal. • Increased regulations and supervision about transportation and supplied. Roads were built to make the journey easier.
Creek • Those who surrendered and those who did not participate in the Creek rebellion were forced to relocate. • Many went in chains. • Peaceful Creeks had provisions supplied by a private company. • Inadequate provisions, shelter and clothing. • As many as 10,000 Creeks died during removal period, including those killed during the Rebellion.
CherokeeDivision in the Tribes Major Ridge “Removal to Survive” John Ross “We’re not going anywhere”
Cherokee • U.S. Government uses brutal tactics to force the Indians to remove to Indian Territory. • Forced to leave everything behind. • Were placed into stockades • About 5,000 left by the end of June. • Removal delayed during summer. • Many died in the stockades due to dysentery and malnutrition.
Cherokee • Army allowed Ross to arrange and supervise the remainder of the removal. • Left in separate parties. Each had: • Physician • Small military escort • Private contractors • Supplied food, horses and oxen • Cherokee Warriors to serve as police • Prevented whiskey sellers from harassing the tribe. • Wagons to transport the old, young and sick. • About 20% to 25% died either on the Trail or in the Stockades.
Citations Text Citations: • Baird, W. David and Goble, Danny. Oklahoma: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. • Bowes, John P. The Trail of Tears: Removal in the South. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2007. • Wallace, Anthony F.C. The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.
Citations • Pictures and Maps: • Trail of Tears Statue: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2150/3874590800_469c11583d.jpg • Trail of Tears Map: http://webserver.bridgtonacademy.org/Goepel/1812-1838/Indian%20Removal.jpg • Trail of Tears: http://www.chattoogariver.org/content/quarterly/F2007/images/trail.jpg • John Ross: http://www.indigenouspeople.net/images/1003john.jpg • Major Ridge: http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/1/5/6/70981123127610901.jpg