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Indian Removal

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  1. Indian Removal The Trail of Tears

  2. Trail of Tears

  3. Choctaw • Those that left in the winter often lacked blankets and warm clothing. • Those that left in the summer fell victim to cholera and other diseases. • Perhaps 4000 Choctaw died of Cholera. • Hundreds died of exposure, hunger and accidents.

  4. Chickasaw • Fared better on the trail. • War Department learned from Choctaw removal. • Increased regulations and supervision about transportation and supplied. Roads were built to make the journey easier.

  5. Creek • Those who surrendered and those who did not participate in the Creek rebellion were forced to relocate. • Many went in chains. • Peaceful Creeks had provisions supplied by a private company. • Inadequate provisions, shelter and clothing. • As many as 10,000 Creeks died during removal period, including those killed during the Rebellion.

  6. CherokeeDivision in the Tribes Major Ridge “Removal to Survive” John Ross “We’re not going anywhere”

  7. Cherokee • U.S. Government uses brutal tactics to force the Indians to remove to Indian Territory. • Forced to leave everything behind. • Were placed into stockades • About 5,000 left by the end of June. • Removal delayed during summer. • Many died in the stockades due to dysentery and malnutrition.

  8. Cherokee • Army allowed Ross to arrange and supervise the remainder of the removal. • Left in separate parties. Each had: • Physician • Small military escort • Private contractors • Supplied food, horses and oxen • Cherokee Warriors to serve as police • Prevented whiskey sellers from harassing the tribe. • Wagons to transport the old, young and sick. • About 20% to 25% died either on the Trail or in the Stockades.

  9. The Trail of Tearsby the numbers

  10. Citations Text Citations: • Baird, W. David and Goble, Danny. Oklahoma: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. • Bowes, John P. The Trail of Tears: Removal in the South. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2007. • Wallace, Anthony F.C. The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.

  11. Citations • Pictures and Maps: • Trail of Tears Statue: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2150/3874590800_469c11583d.jpg • Trail of Tears Map: http://webserver.bridgtonacademy.org/Goepel/1812-1838/Indian%20Removal.jpg • Trail of Tears: http://www.chattoogariver.org/content/quarterly/F2007/images/trail.jpg • John Ross: http://www.indigenouspeople.net/images/1003john.jpg • Major Ridge: http://images-mediawiki-sites.thefullwiki.org/04/1/5/6/70981123127610901.jpg