DATA ANALYSIS(Coding System) Example: Gender of the respondents • ‘1’ for Male and ‘2’ for Female. Type of HP service plan used • ‘1 – pre-paid’, ‘2 – fixed line’ Type of HP provider used • ‘1 – TalkTime’, ‘2 – AirCom’, ‘3 – LemonRing’ Reasons of choosing the provider • ‘1 – low price’, ‘2 – popular service’, ‘3 – better coverage’ Sample (Page 48 & 49)
Coding System • Code for the students who took part in the survey, i.e. S1, S2, etc. • Also suitable for Yes/No questions and Likert-scale statements in a questionnaire. • ‘1 – Yes’ and ‘2 – No’ • ‘1 – strongly agree’, ‘2 – agree’, ‘3 – disagree’ and ‘4 – strongly disagree’ • Page 49
Presenting Quantitative Data • Turn the data into something more comprehensible. • Use illustrations such as tables, graphs and charts. • Use appropriate illustrations to help readers to understand the data, to identify the significant features of the data and grasp the significance of the entire report.
Figure or Table Number • Figures are visuals consisting of graphs, maps, schematic diagrams, photographs, flowcharts, Gantt charts, tree diagrams, etc. • Use Arabic numerals, e.g. ‘Figure 2’ instead of ‘Figure Two’. • Number the figures and tables separately. • Number the visuals in their sequential order of appearance.
Title or Caption • Should be short and concise. • Titles of visuals should describe the subject of the illustrations and data included. • Titles should be placed correctly, i.e. title of a table should be placed above the table while title for a figure should be placed below the figure. • First letter of every word in the title should be capitalised except for prepositions and articles.
Labels of Parts in the Illustrations • Labels should be clear. • Labels should consist of only a few words. Sample (Page 51 & 52)
Analysing Quantitative Data • Analysis of quantitative data involves interpretation of frequencies, tables, graphs, etc. that describes the data. Table 4.5 Number of Students According to HP Service Plan N = 14 • The analysis of the data in Table 4.5 shows that eight students used the ‘Pre-paid’ HP service plan and six other students used the ‘Fixed Line’ HP service plan.
Responses to an Open-ended Question in the Questionnaire Hand phones are very popular among students of all ages. Please give your comments.
Figure 1Causes of Road Accidents 1 -Attitude/Human Error 2-Technical Error 3- Road Condition 4- Poor Reinforcements
Explain Statistics/ Presenting statistics Figure A shows the causes of road accidents happening in Malaysia (RQ1). The questionnaires were distributed to 30 respondents and all 30 responded. The chart shows that 8 respondents claimed road accidents are mainly caused by ‘human errors’ or the drivers attitude and 7 respondents blamed it on ‘poor reinforcements’. On the other hand a minority (3 respondents) viewed it as due to ‘technical error’ for example like poor car condition while only 2 respondents feel it was caused by road condition.
Compare findings with previous research findings • Evaluate the situation • Infer ( state your view points ) However, studies carried out by Smith (2003) in United States revealed road accidents were mainly caused by road condition.Both studies resulted different findings as United States experienced long winter season unlike Malaysia. Besides that differences could also be influenced by the fact that Smith (2003) surveys were responded by the highway patrollers instead road users. Results in any research are expected to be different since accidents are always related to the environment and lifestyle of one’s country. Road condition in Malaysia is one of the best in the world.
INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATION10% ( TASK 2) • Oral Presentation Skills Guidelines -PPT • Content (Bullet points) • Figure/Table/Chart • Explanation of the Statistics • Comparing with previous research • Evaluation of the difference • Inference • Presentation Skill • Voice Projection (Clear Enough) • Eye contact • Good Body Language • Interaction with audience • Language • Spoken English Language • Simple /straight f0rward
Research Question 1What are the causes or road accidents in UTM? 1 -Attitude/Human Error 2-Technical Error 3- Road Condition 4- Poor Reinforcements Figure 1 : Causes of road accidents in UTM