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CBER’s Blood Safety Team Blood Products Advisory Committee. 01 May 2008 Jonathan C. Goldsmith, MD Office of Blood Research and Review. The CBER Blood Safety Team. Need for a Blood Safety Team Legal framework for Blood Regulation The Layers of Blood Safety The Blood Safety Team

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CBER’s Blood Safety Team Blood Products Advisory Committee


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cber s blood safety team blood products advisory committee

CBER’s Blood Safety TeamBlood Products Advisory Committee

01 May 2008

Jonathan C. Goldsmith, MD

Office of Blood Research and Review

the cber blood safety team
The CBER Blood Safety Team
  • Need for a Blood Safety Team
  • Legal framework for Blood Regulation
  • The Layers of Blood Safety
  • The Blood Safety Team
    • Goals and Objectives
    • Organizational Structure
  • Activities of the Blood Safety Team
  • Long term challenges
basis for the bst annual u s blood donation and utilization
Basis for the BST:Annual U.S. Blood Donation and Utilization
  • 8 million unpaid volunteers donate approximately 15 million units of Whole Blood
  • 4.5 million patients receive about 29 million units of blood components
  • ~2.4 million units of “recovered plasma” from Whole Blood donation are sold for further manufacturing, including fractionation
  • One million paid apheresis donors provide an additional ~10 million liters of Source Plasma for fractionation
basis for the bst scope of fda regulated blood and related device and drug establishments
Basis for the BST:Scope of FDA-Regulated Blood and Related Device and Drug Establishments
  • Blood Collection Centers - ~1,300
    • Community Based (90% of collections)
    • Hospital Based (8% of collections)
    • Military (2% of collections)
  • Hospital Transfusion Services - ~5,000
    • Vast majority only cross match and dispense
  • Device Manufacturers - ~400
    • Test Kits, Blood Grouping Reagents
    • Apheresis machines, blood warmers, etc.
  • Drug Manufacturers (e.g. anticoagulants) - ~30
basis for the bst scope of fda regulated blood and related device and drug establishments1
Basis for the BST:Scope of FDA-Regulated Blood and Related Device and Drug Establishments
  • Plasmapheresis Centers - ~300
  • Plasma Derivative Manufacturers - ~20
  • Products
    • Coagulation Factors
    • Immune Globulins
    • Antitoxins
    • Albumin
    • Alpha-1-Proteinase Inhibitor
    • AT III
legal framework for fda regulation i
Legal Framework for FDA Regulation - I
  • U.S. Blood and plasma are collected, processed and distributed by private industry regulated by the FDA under two national laws
  • Public Health Service (PHS) ACT (42 USC 202 et. seq.)
      • Section 351 (biologics regulation*)
      • Section 361 (communicable disease control)

*Licensed biological products concurrently are drugs or devices under the FD&C Act

legal framework for fda regulation ii
Legal Framework for FDA Regulation - II
  • Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act (21 USC 302 et. seq.)
      • Addresses drugs and medical devices
      • FDA Amendment Act of 2007
  • Blood organizations also comply with State laws and voluntary standards (e.g. AABB, PPTA)
the overlapping layers of blood safety i
The Overlapping Layers of Blood Safety - I
  • Donor Eligibility
    • Potential donors are provided educational materials to permit self deferral. Specific questions ask about their health, medical history, and other risk factors
  • Testing for Communicable Diseases
    • Required: HIV, HBV, HCV, HTLV, syphilis
    • Voluntary: WNV, T. Cruzi, CMV
  • Donor Deferral Registries
    • Blood establishments must keep current a list of individuals who have been deferred as blood or plasma donors
the overlapping layers of blood safety ii
The Overlapping Layers of Blood Safety - II
  • Quarantining of Unsuitable Blood
    • Blood products are quarantined until the products have been thoroughly tested and the donation records have been verified
  • Investigation of Problems
    • Blood establishments must investigate any breaches of these safeguards and correct all system deficiencies
  • Pathogen Reduction
    • Plasma derivatives undergo viral inactivation procedures
cber initiative blood safety team
CBER Initiative:Blood Safety Team
  • CBER established a Blood Safety Team in July 2006
  • Goals
    • To formalize Center operating procedures
    • To establish roles and responsibilities in the management of blood safety issues
    • To enhance internal and external communications
blood safety team
Blood Safety Team
  • Major objectives:
    • To improve CBER responses to blood safety issues through defined cross Office collaboration creating increased sensitivity to safety signals
    • To improve the value of safety information and broaden public and regulated industry access to the information
    • To improve the processing of blood safety information through establishment of a forum for review and evaluation permitting discussions in a non-crisis mode and facilitating anticipation of events
    • To enhance external outreach, evaluation and risk communication
activities of the blood safety team
Activities of the Blood Safety Team
  • Coordinates investigations of potential shortages of blood and blood products
    • Due to manufacturing changes
      • Investigation of impact of manufacturing changes
      • Impact of potential recalls on public health
    • Due to reports of adverse events
      • Investigation of adverse events
    • Due to reports of reduced stability
      • Investigation of potential responses
  • Seeks regulatory pathways to avert shortages
activities of the blood safety team1
Activities of the Blood Safety Team
  • Reviews Annual Fatality Reports from Whole Blood and Source Plasma Establishments

(21 CFR 606.170 [b]) and (21 CFR 640.73)

    • Provides oversight for the annual report
    • Reviews communication opportunities
  • Seeks potential etiologies
    • Donors: identify risk factors for fatalities
    • Recipients: improve understanding of adverse outcomes
  • Investigates potential mitigating strategies
activities of the blood safety team2
Activities of the Blood Safety Team
  • Reviews Biologic Product Deviation Reports (BPDRs) and potential enhancements to reduce reporting burdens
    • Provides oversight for the annual report
    • Reviews the benefit of continued implementation of post donation information (PDI)
      • Tattoos
      • Donor history of cancer
activities of the blood safety team3
Activities of the Blood Safety Team
  • Evaluates manufacturing issues and potential safety impacts
    • Effect of breaches in cGMPs
      • Bioburden excursions
      • Impact on safety, purity, and potency
  • Investigates approaches to threats to the blood supply
    • Reviews existing scientific information and supports public workshops
activities of the blood safety team4
Activities of the Blood Safety Team
  • Investigates impact of outbreaks of transfusion transmissible diseases on potential blood donors
    • e.g. Endoscopy related
  • Implements a rapid response to urgent safety events
    • Investigates the impact of adulterated pharmaceutical ingredients
      • On injection biologics
      • Devices used to screen donors and to diagnose viral diseases
ongoing bst challenges
Ongoing BST Challenges

Development and formalization of best cross Office approaches to key safety areas:

  • BPDRs: seeks ways to increase value to FDA and regulated industry
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs): explores improvements in informatics
  • Data mining: use of advanced algorithms to detect safety signals
  • Need for denominators: investigates role of hospital based transfusionists to improve databases
cber s blood safety team summary
CBER’s Blood Safety TeamSummary
  • Functions as a coordinated, agile, inter-Office team that evaluates, processes, investigates and responds to a variety of blood safety issues
  • Plays an important role in external outreach and risk communication