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Public Policy - Law PowerPoint Presentation
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Public Policy - Law

Public Policy - Law

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Public Policy - Law

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  1. Public Policy - Law • A social construct for effecting behaviorand achieving national goals • Defines goals, establishes a reasons for behavior • Defines, promotes, and rewards certain types of behavior – carrots and big sticks • Defines, prohibits, and penalizes – implicitly or explicitly – other types of behavior • Provides a context in which individuals, corporations, and governments decide to behave and subsequently act

  2. The U.S. Constitution and the Supreme Court has given different branches of the Government different and complementary powers Congress Agency Courts LAW – PUBLIC POLICY

  3. U.S. Energy Policy

  4. Energy Policy/Law 42 USC • Legislation printed in individual volumes of the Statutes at Large • Information providing the context for legislation - printed in the documents produced during the legislative process • Legislation printed in the Titles of the US Code • Rules printed in the individual issues of the Federal Register • Information providing the context for the rule - printed in the Federal Register • Rules printed in the Titles of the Code of Federal Regulations DOE Supreme Court Energy Law/Policy

  5. Interconnected Policies • Energy policy • Foreign policy Transportation policy • Agricultural policy • Balance of Trade

  6. Involves a principle – stemming from the federal Constitution • Involves strategies – programs that • embody a goal – a purpose • assume some sort of knowledge base – how to achieve the goal • assume some sort of social structure – an authority • use sort of evaluative mechanism – whether policy achieves goal • Energy Law • Energy Producers • Energy Consumers

  7. Energy Flow, 2011

  8. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.trendingenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/2012-US-Energy-Use.png&imgrefurl=http://www.trendingenergy.com/wasted-energy-2012-u-s-energy-flows/&h=2000&w=3000&sz=254&tbnid=gBKjigI8GYQ5IM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&zoom=1&usg=__IZr3srnXEjouuoRPv0CIyAkSIbM=&docid=CASsJaYZZAFnOM&sa=X&ei=4wFUUr2oCMfiqAHp0oFg&ved=0CEEQ9QEwAghttp://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.trendingenergy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/2012-US-Energy-Use.png&imgrefurl=http://www.trendingenergy.com/wasted-energy-2012-u-s-energy-flows/&h=2000&w=3000&sz=254&tbnid=gBKjigI8GYQ5IM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&zoom=1&usg=__IZr3srnXEjouuoRPv0CIyAkSIbM=&docid=CASsJaYZZAFnOM&sa=X&ei=4wFUUr2oCMfiqAHp0oFg&ved=0CEEQ9QEwAg

  9. Petroleum Flow, 2011

  10. Natural Gas Flow 2011

  11. Coal Flow, 2011

  12. http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=renewable_homehttp://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page=renewable_home

  13. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2011 Issues arising out of production and use

  14. Electricity Flow, 2011

  15. Residential Space heating 32% Water heating 13% Lighting 12% Air conditioning 11% Refrigeration 8% Electronics 5% Drying clothes 5% Commercial Lighting 25% Heating 13% Cooling 11% Refrigeration 6% Water heating 6% Ventilation 6% Electronics 6% Electricity Uses by Sector • Industrial • Chemical production 22% • Petroleum refining 16% • Metal smelting/refining 14%

  16. Transportation. Vehicles which transport people/goods on ground, air or water • Gasoline fuel 61% • Diesel fuel 21% • Aviation 12% • Natural gas used in the transportation sector (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions)

  17. United States Federal Energy Legislation (Wikipedia) • Energy Law: An Overview (Legal Information Institute) • Statutory Law 42 U.S. Code • Advanced Energy Legislation Tracker • Energy and Environment Legislation Tracking Database • Energy & Environment (White House) • Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140 121 Stat.1492) • Legislation & Regulations Analysis (Energy Information Administration) • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 109th Congress (CRS Feb. 2, 2009 found on WikiLeaks!) • Administrative Law 10 CFR • A brief history of energy regulations (Cato Institute Feb. 2009)

  18. Energy Policy journal • What your need to know about energy (The National Academies) • Energy Flows (National Energy Education Development Project)

  19. Natural Gas • U.S. projected to be the world’s biggest oil and gas producer this year (NPR Oct.7, 2013) • Natural gas (Energy.gov) • Natural gas (US Energy Information Administration) • Natural gas (The National Academies) • NaturalGas.org • Natural gas (EPA) • After the Boom in Natural Gas (New York Times Oct. 20, 2012) • We're Headed To $8 Natural Gas (Forbes July 22, 2012) • Methane (National Geographic Oct. 2012)

  20. http://www.cfr.org/energy-and-environment/hydraulic-fracturing-fracking/p31559http://www.cfr.org/energy-and-environment/hydraulic-fracturing-fracking/p31559

  21. Hydraulic fracturing (Wikipedia) • Shale gas 101 (Energy.gov) • Natural gas from shale (Chevron) • Is Fracking Safe? The Top 10 Controversial Claims About Natural Gas Drilling (Popular Mechanics) • The rapid expansion of natural gas drilling across the nation endangers human health and the environment (Natural Resources Defense Council) • The Fracturing of Pennsylvania (New York Times Magazine Nov. 17, 2011) • Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking) (Council on Foreign Relations Oct. 7, 2013) • Bakken Shale Oil (National Geographic March 2013) • Silica sand mining ( Minnesota Pollution Control Agency) • Continuing series: Frac Sand Fever (Star Tribune)

  22. US Department of Energy • “to ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions” • Offices • Energy Information Administration • Biomass Energy Data Book • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • Transportation Energy Data Book

  23. Statutory Law 42 U.S. Code • CHAPTER 71 Solar Energy • 42 USC 5501 et seq. Pub. L. 93–409, sec. 2, Sept. 3, 1974, 88 Stat. 1069 “Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978” • 42 USC 5551 et seq. Pub. L. 93–473, sec. 2, Oct. 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 1431 “Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974” • 42 USC 5581 et seq. Pub. L. 95–590, sec.2, Nov. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 2513 “Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978”

  24. CHAPTER 73 DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY SOURCES • CHAPTER 74 NONNUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT • CHAPTER 77 ENERGY CONSERVATION • CHAPTER 78NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE IN ALASKA • Strategic Petroleum Reserves • CHAPTER 81 ENERGY CONSERVATION AND RESOURCE RENEWAL • CHAPTER 83 ENERGY EXTENSION SERVICE • CHAPTER 84 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY • CHAPTER 88 URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADIATION CONTROL • CHAPTER 91 NATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION POLICY • CHAPTER 92 POWERPLANT AND INDUSTRIAL FUEL USE • CHAPTER 93 EMERGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION

  25. Statutory Law • CHAPTER 94 LOW-INCOME ENERGY ASSISTANCE • CHAPTER 95UNITED STATES SYNTHETIC FUELS CORPORATION • When the U.S. government believed synthetic fuels could save the world • CHAPTER 96BIOMASS ENERGY AND ALCOHOL FUELS • Pub. L. 96–294, title II, sec. 202, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 683 “Biomass Energy and Alcohol Fuels Act of 1980” • CHAPTER 97ACID PRECIPITATION PROGRAM AND CARBON DIOXIDE STUDY • Pub. L. 96–294, title VII, sec. 702, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 770 “Acid Precipitation Act of 1980” • Pub. L. 96–294, title VII, sec. 711, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 774 “Energy Security Act”

  26. CHAPTER 98 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT • Pub. L. 96–310, sec. 2, July 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 941 “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Research, Development, and Demonstration Act” • CHAPTER 99 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION • CHAPTER 100 WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS • Pub. L. 96–345, sec 2, Sept. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1139Wind Energy Systems Act of 1980” • CHAPTER 101 MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY ENGINEERING • CHAPTER 108 NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY • CHAPTER 134 ENERGY POLICY • CHAPTER 149 ENERGY POLICY ACT, 2005

  27. U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources • House Energy and Commerce Committee • Congressional Research Service <Energy> • General Accountability Office <Energy> • American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy • Electric Utility Companies • Automobile Manufacturers • Trucking firms • Environmental Issues: Energy (Natural Resources Defense Council) • Fresh-energy

  28. Energy Production Department of Energy Nuclear Regulatory Council 10 CFR Energy Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Strategic Petroleum Reserves (Dept of Energy) USA.gov <Coal Mining > USA.gov <Uranium mining> Energy Production and Use Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy.gov (Dept of Energy) Dept of Transportation 23 CFR Highways 49 CFR Transportation Environmental Protection Agency Administrative Law

  29. Nuclear Energy (Almanac of Policy Issues) • Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE) • United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission • The future role of nuclear power in the United States (NRDC)

  30. Nuclear Facilities

  31. Nuclear Waste (Wikipedia) • Radioactive Waste (Nuclear Regulatory Council) • Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management • Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board– an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988. The Board's mandate under the Atomic Energy Act is to provide safety oversight of the nuclear weapons complex operated by the Department of Energy • Nuclear Waste Management in the United States (Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board) • Radioactive Waste Disposal: An Environmental Perspective (EPA) • Nuclear Waste Storage in Minnesota (Legislative Reference Library) • News for nuclear waste in Minnesota

  32. 42 USC 10101-10270 • DISPOSAL AND STORAGE OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, AND LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE • Pub. L. 97–425, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2206 Nuclear Waste Policy Act • 10121 State and affected Indian tribe participation in development of proposed repositories for defense waste Part A Repositories for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel (LexisNexis Congressional U. S. Code (Service)) • Part B—Interim Storage Program • Part C—Monitored Retrievable Storage • Part D—Low-Level Radioactive Waste • Part E—Redirection of Nuclear Waste Program • Part F—Benefits • Part G—Other Benefits • Part H—Transportation

  33. Nuclear Waste Policy (Wikipedia) • Summary of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (EPA) • Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (DOE) • Nuclear Waste Policy Dilemma - The First Fifty Years: A Chronology (Nevada) • Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository (Wikipedia) • Yucca Mountain (New York Times) • YuccaMountain.org • Yucca Mountain Still a Radioactive Issue on Capitol Hill ...(National Journal Sept 10, 2013 • Implementing the Nuclear Waste Policy Act – Next Steps (House Energy & Commerce Committee) • Nuclear Waste Policy (The Foundry) • New U.S. Nuclear Waste Policy May Be Illegal: GAO (Forbes April 14, 2013)

  34. Regulation - 16 CFR 305 RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES • The Federal Trade Commission issued the Appliance Labeling Rule on Nov. 19 1979 • (44 FR 66466)  in response to a directive in the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (as amended) • Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 Legislative History • The Rule covers eight categories of household appliances: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, water heaters, room air conditioners, furnaces, and central air conditioners • Subsequently, the Commission expanded the Rule’s coverage five times • 1987 (central air conditioners, heat pumps, and certain new types of furnaces) • 1989 (fluorescent lamp ballasts) • 1993 (certain plumbing products) • 1994 (certain lighting products, and pool heaters and certain other types of water heaters) • August 29 2007 72 FR 49948

  35. Regulation - 16 CFR 305 RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES • requires manufacturers of all these appliances to disclose specific energy consumption or efficiency information (derived from the Department of Energy test procedures, at the point of sale in the form of an "EnergyGuide" label and in catalogs • requires manufacturers to include, on labels, an energy consumption or efficiency figure and a "range of comparability" • range shows the highest and lowest energy consumption or efficiencies for all comparable appliance models so consumers can compare the energy consumption or efficiency of other models similar to the labeled model

  36. Regulating Carbon Dioxide • Massachusetts V EPA 549 U.S. 497(Cornell University) 127 S. Ct. 1438 (2007) • Supreme Court sends carbon regulation back to the EPA (ARS Technica) • In the majority view, the "EPA’s steadfast refusal to regulate greenhouse gas emissions presents a risk of harm to Massachusetts that is both 'actual' and 'imminent.'" • The EPA's Prudent Response to Massachusetts v. EPA (Heritage Foundation March 2008) • Massachusetts v. EPA, Ignored: One Year Later, Back to Court We Go(Warming Law blog) • Carbon Dioxide (EPA) • Regulatory Initiatives (EPA) • EPA Proposes Carbon Pollution Standards for New Power Plants / Agency takes important step to reduce carbon pollution from power plants as part of President Obama’s Climate Action Plan (EPA Sept. 20, 2013) • EPA Wants To Limit Greenhouse Gases From New Coal Power Plants (MPR Sept. 20, 2013) • New EPA proposal for cutting emissions draws immediate reactions (Electric Light & Power Oct. 9, 2013)

  37. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 2009 (EIA) a comprehensive annual financial review and analysis of the domestic and worldwide activities and operations of the major U.S.-based energy-producing companies Public Companies Amerada Hess CorporationExxon Mobil CorporationAnadarko Petroleum CorporationKerr-McGee CorporationApache CorporationLyondell Chemical CompanyBP America, Inc.Marathon Oil CorporationBurlington Resources, Inc.Motiva Enterprises, L.L.C.Chesapeake Energy Corporation Occidental Petroleum CorporationChevron CorporationShell Oil Company CITGO Petroleum CorporationSunoco, Inc.ConocoPhillips CompanyTesoro Petroleum CorporationDevon Energy CorporationTotal Holdings USA, Inc.Dominion ResourcesValero Energy CorporationEl Paso CorporationThe Williams Companies, Inc.EOG Resources, Inc.XTO Energy, Inc.Equitable Resources, Inc. Private Companies Apex OilFlint Hills ResourcesHilcorp Corporate “Players” – Energy Producers - Oil Gas

  38. Standard Industrial Classification Corporation Breakdown

  39. Corporate “Players” – Energy Users • All other corporations • Manufacturers of all kinds – automobiles to paper clips • Consumers of all kinds – who demand not only an automobile but a choice between various kinds of automobiles – and paper clips

  40. Renewable Energy • RenewableEnergyWorld.com • Types of renewable energy • Renewable energy explained (EIA) • Renewable Energy international journal

  41. Renewable Energy - US Department of Energy • Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy • National Renewable Energy Laboratory - the U.S. Department of Energy's primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development • Fuel production • Transportation • The built environment • Electricity generation and delivery • National Bioenergy Center • National Center for Photovoltaics • National Wind Technology Center

  42. Ethanol fuel in the United States (Wikipedia) • Department of Energy <Ethanol> • Biomass Program: Ethanol (DOE) • Ethanol Fuel (Alternative Energy) • Ethanol Facts (Renewable Fuels Association) • American Coalition for Ethanol • Google search <ethanol fuels> • LexisNexis Academic <ethanol>

  43. Ethanol • More Minnesota ethanol plants seeking profits beyond ethanol (Star Tribune Oct. 5, 2013)

  44. Electricity

  45. Electric Utility Companies • Electricity in the United States (EIA) • Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (DOE) • Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (DOE) • US Electric Utility Companies (Wikipedia) • Electric Utilities (wikinvest) • Electric Power Statistics (American Public Power Association)