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The 1970s were difficult times in America… The oil crisis The economy is weak

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The 1970s were difficult times in America… The oil crisis The economy is weak The outcome of the Vietnam War Marxist regimes in Nicaragua & El Salvador The Soviets invasion of Afghanistan. The Iranian Hostage Crisis & Carter’s failed rescue

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The 1970s were difficult times in America…

  • The oil crisis
  • The economy is weak
  • The outcome of the Vietnam War
  • Marxist regimes in Nicaragua & El Salvador
  • The Soviets invasion of Afghanistan.
  • The Iranian Hostage Crisis & Carter’s failed rescue
  • As a result of Carter’s policies the American military had low morale, low pay & outdated equipment …Key military personnel were not re-enlisting
the conservative tide

The Conservative Tide


Ronald Reagan & Bush H.W. Bush

1981-1989 1989-1993

ronald reagan
Ronald Reagan
  • Movie star…. President of the Screen Actors Guild
  • 1966: Elected Governor of CA
  • 1980: Elected President
  • 1981: Attempted assassination
  • 1984: Re-elected …Landslide victory
The Conservative Movement in The U.S...
  • Reduce the size of the Government
  • Reduce government spending
  • Reduce government regulations to stimulate business
  • Lower taxes
  • Strengthen the national defense
  • Promote family values & patriotic ideas
  • Supported by the New Right…
      • Pro- Life
      • School Prayer
      • Anti-Affirmative Action
      • Personal Responsibility
the 1980 election reagan vs carter
The 1980 Election: Reagan vs. Carter
  • The major campaign issues…
    • The Iranian Hostage crisis
    • The weak economy
1984 ronald reagan vs walter mondale
1984: Ronald Reagan vs. Walter Mondale
  • Reagan landslide
  • Geraldine Ferraro was Mondale’s VP… The first women on a major party’s Presidential ticket.
what was reaganomics
What was Reaganomics?
  • Commonly associated with “supply-side economics” or “trickle-down economics.”
  • The four pillars of Reagan's economic policy were…
  • Reduce the size of government
  • Reduce government spending
  • Reduce taxes
  • Reduce government regulation
  • Reduce inflation

Reagan’s First Inaugural address:

“Government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.”

Drastic cuts in social programs…

Welfare; Job-training; Medicaid; School lunches; & Student loans.

recession recovery the national debt
Recession, Recovery & the National Debt
  • Tax Cuts & consumer spending spark the economy
  • Stocks surged, unemployment declined& GNP went up 10%.
  • Major stock market crash in1987… The market rebounds
  • Federal spending still exceeded Federal revenue due to the tax cuts.

By 1984 the national debt doubles under Reagan

  • Reagan cut back on the regulation of industry
  • Deregulation increased business competition & lower prices for consumers
  • Reagan cuts Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funding…More mining, logging, oil & gas drilling… Potential environmental risk?
  • Deregulation of the Savings & Loan Banks
urban crisis in the 1980s
Urban Crisis in the 1980s...
  • High Unemployment
  • Homelessness
  • Crumbling Infrastructure
  • Lack of health services
  • Deteriorating Schools
  • Drugs (Crack)
  • A surge in gangs and gang violence
social issues of 1980 s
Social Issues of 1980’s…
  • AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
  • Drugs
  • The abortion issue: Roe v. Wade 1973…Over turn the Roe decision...Pro-life vs. Pro-choice
  • The War on Drugs… Nancy Reagan’s anti- drug campaign “Just Say no!” to drugs… “This is your brain on drugs.”
education 1980 s
Education 1980’s
  • A Federal Commission issued a report in 1983 called

A Nation at Risk

  • 23 million Americans can’t fill out a job application or follow an instruction manual
1983 the evil empire
1983: The “evil empire”….
  • In a speech Reagan refers to the USSR as the “evil empire”
  • Reagan sought to exceed the SU's military power.
  • Reagan predicted this would be “the final pages of the history of the S.U.”
  • Reagan angered Soviet leaders & escalated the Cold War.
cold war victory through strength

Reagan begins the largest peace build up of the military in history.

Cold war victory through strength…

Reagan begins a massive military build up to wear down the Soviets…

Revived the B-1 bomber program, (canceled by the Carter)

Deploys the Peacekeeper missile

NATO deploys the Pershing II missile in West Germany

Reagan expanded the U.S. military budget to a staggering 43% increase over the height of the Vietnam war.

1983 strategic defense initiative sdi aka star wars
1983: Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)… AKA: Star Wars
  • A plan to develop a space-based missile defense program that could defend a nuclear attack.
  • If successful, could destroy the Soviet ability to make a first strike.
  • An arms race... The Soviets wanted to keep pace with the US, but they couldn't afford to the game.
  • It was unrealistic?...Dependent on not yet developed space-based laser systems.
  • Reagan beat the Soviets economically... The cost of the arms race damages the Soviet economy... Soviet Communism will collapse.
1983 the grenada invasion
1983: The Grenada Invasion
  • Reagan sends 2,000 US Marines to overthrow a

Pro-Cuban government & rescue US citizens

  • 18 US soldiers were killed
1977 1979 nicaragua
1977-1979: Nicaragua
  • The Sandinistas (Communists) take control on Nicaragua ...This was the Contra War (1981-89)
  • This was a Cold War confrontation between the US & Soviets
  • Reagan viewed the Sandinistas as a regional threat
  • The US supported the “Contras” (Counter revolutionaries) with CIA training & weapons
  • The Congress banned aid to the Contras for two years
1985 iran contra scandal
1985: Iran-Contra Scandal
  • In 1985, 7 Americans were taken hostage in Lebanon by Pro- Iranian group
  • Reagan approved the sale of arms to Iran in exchange for the hostages release
  • National Security Council Aid Colonel Oliver North diverted millions in profits from the arms sale to the Anti- communist Contras fighting in Nicaragua

1986 us bombing of libya
1986: US Bombing of Libya
  • In response to a 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing …3 dead, 220 wounded
  • Air-strikes against Libya
  • Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi was a sponsor of terrorist acts against the West.
background george h w bush
Background George H.W. Bush…
  • From a wealthy family with a history of public service
  • Attends elite private school & Yale University
  • Decorated Navy pilot in WW II
  • Government service…

-House of Representatives Texas

-Ambassador to UN

-Chair of RNC

-Liaison to China

-Director of CIA

-Reagan VP – 2 terms

election of 1988
Election of 1988
  • Good economy, no reason to change
  • Bush “Read my Lips: no new Taxes!”
  • Dedicate to “Traditional American values”

GHW Bush (R) vs. Michael Dukakis ( D)


Collapse of Communism

  • 1985 – Gorbachev became General Sec. of the USSR
  • The Glasnost period – “Openness”

-Allows criticism of government

-“Perestrokia” – Restructuring of The Soviet Economy

Mikhail Gorbachev

1989 collapse of communism
1989: Collapse of Communism
  • Czechoslovakia divided, Latvia, Estonia& Lithuania became independent
  • Hungary, Bulgaria& Romania transition from communism
  • Yugoslavia collapsed, igniting a brutal war among Muslims, Orthodox Serbs & Catholic Croats
1991 the break up of the ussr
1991: The Break-up of the USSR
  • 14 republics declare independence
  • Common Wealth of Independent States (CIS) was established
1990 americans with disabilities act
1990: Americans with Disabilities Act

Protects those with disabilities from discrimination in public places. The act makes American society more accessible to disabled Americans.

1989 the panama invasion
1989: The Panama Invasion

President Bush sends 20K troops to overthrow & arrest General Manuel Noriega on charges of international drug-trafficking

Noriega is trafficking drugs, guns & laundering money.

1990 the persian gulf war
1990: The Persian Gulf War
  • Saddam Hussein/Iraq invades Kuwait
  • Saddam threatens Middle East stability …Oil
  • President Bush organized an international coalition & with the support of the UN launched Operation Desert Storm
  • Kuwait was liberated & Iraq was weakened
  • 137 Americans KIA…. 100K Iraqi KIA