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  1. Table of Contents • States of Matter • Changes of State • Gas Behavior • Graphing Gas Behavior

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the characteristics* of… • Solids • Liquids • Gases • *Note that these characteristics include definite shape, definite volume, kinetic energy of the particles that make up each state of matter, and the distance between the particles for each state of matter.

  3. Solids, Liquids, & Gases • Goal: Compare and contrast characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases while reviewing the signs of a chemical change & energy changes. • Examine the citric acid with the magnifying glass and the green substance in the film canister. • Place no more than HALF a spoonful of citric acid and baking soda in the bag, the place the film canister in the bag too (but make sure it doesn’t spill). Then seal the bag and shake it. Be sure to make several different observations including feeling the bag. When the change is about finished, then open the bag up. Note that the gas shouldn’t be in your table until you perform the experiment. • Create a table like the one on the next slide and complete it in your lab notebook. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE ONLY 1 SOLID, 1 LIQUID, AND 1 GAS IN THE TABLE! Then answer the questions below the table.

  4. Solids, Liquids, & Gases Data & Analysis Review (Changes in Matter): Was there a chemical change? If so, then list the signs you used to tell that a chemical reaction took place? Review (Changes in Energy): Was there a change in energy? Was the change an endothermic or exothermic change? Explain how you know.

  5. Learning Objectives • Describe the characteristics* of… • Solids • Liquids • Gases • *Note that these characteristics include definite shape, definite volume, kinetic energy of the particles that make up each state of matter, and the distance between the particles for each state of matter.

  6. - States of Matter Solids • A fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles causes a solid to have a definite shape and volume. KE = low

  7. In amorphous solids, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern. Particles are arranged randomly, so these solids are more brittle and break unevenly. Example- Glass - States of Matter Solids • Solids that are made up of crystals are called crystalline solids. Example- Table Salt

  8. - States of Matter Liquids • Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has NO definite shape. However, it does have a definite volume. KE = middle • Liquids also have several other properties including surface tension(particles pulling inward making the surface particles closer together to form a sort of skin) and viscosity(resistance to flow).

  9. - States of Matter Gases • As they move, gas particles spread apart, filling all the space available. Thus, a gas has neither definite shape nor definite volume. KE = high

  10. Which of the following could be classified as an amorphous solid? • Butter • Glass • Salt • Choices A & B are correct. • Choices A, B & C are correct.

  11. Why are some substances that are more dense than water able to float on its surface? • Due to water’s mass • Due to water’s “skin-like” surface • Due to water’s viscosity • Due to water’s density

  12. If a substance has a high viscosity, then what would you observe if you saw someone pouring the substance into a container? • The substance will pour quickly at first and then slowly. • The substance has a high surface tension. • The substance will pour quickly because it cannot resist the force of gravity. • The substance will pour slowly because it can resist the force of gravity.

  13. Which of the following substances has the highest viscosity? • Honey • Glass • Water • Motor Oil

  14. Which of the following have a definite shape? • Solids • Liquids • Gases • All of the above

  15. Which of the following have a definite volume? • Solids • Liquids • Gases • Choices A & B • Choices A, B, & C

  16. Which of the following takes the shape of the container? • Solids • Liquids • Gases • All of the above

  17. Which of the following have neither definite shape nor a definite volume? • Solids • Liquids • Gases • All of the above

  18. Rank solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the kinetic energy of their particles. 1 = Least kinetic energy, 3 = Most kinetic energy • 1= Gases, 2= Solids, 3= Liquids • 1= Liquids, 2= Solids, 3= Gases • 1= Solids, 2= Liquids, 3= Gases • 1= Gases, 2= Liquids, 3= Solids

  19. Rank the states of matter in terms of the distance between their particles. 1= Closest together, 3= Furthest apart • 1= Solids, 2= Liquids, 3= Gases • 1= Gases, 2= Liquids, 3= Solids • 1= Liquids, 2= Gases, 3= Solids • 1= Solids, 2= Gases, 3= Liquids

  20. Key Terms: Examples: surface tension viscosity gas - States of Matter Building Vocabulary • A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling about its most important feature or function. After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write a definition of each Key Term. Key Terms: Examples: solid A solid has a definite shape and a definite volume. Surface tension is the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together. crystalline solid Solids that are made up of crystals are called crystalline solids. Another property of liquids is viscosity—a liquid’s resistance to flowing. amorphous solid In amorphous solids, the particles are not arranged in a regular pattern. Like a liquid, a gas is a fluid. Unlike a liquid, however, a gas can change volume very easily. liquid A liquid has a definite volume but no shape of its own. fluid A liquid is also called a fluid, meaning “a substance that flows.”

  21. - States of Matter Viscosity • Click the Video button to watch a movie about viscosity.

  22. End of Section:States of Matter

  23. Effect of Temperature on Particle Movement (No lab write-up) • Goal- Determine how temperature affects the movement (and KE) of the particles that make up matter. • Hypothesis (in your head)- Which type of water will cause the particles of water to move faster– hot or cold? Why? • Procedure- Place hot water on one side of the divider of the plexiglass container and cold water on the other side. Immediately drop 2-3 drops of food coloring on each side and observe what happens. • Conclusion- How did temperature affect the movement of the particles of water (as indicated by the food dye)? Explain how you know.

  24. Noggin Knocker Quiz (7 points-1 pt. per problem) • 1a- Solids • 1b- Gases • 2- Liquids • 3- Vibrate back and forth • 4- Gases • 5- Due to surface tension • 6- Maple Syrup

  25. Learning Objectives • Explain what happens to a substance during the changes between… • Solid and Liquid • Liquid and Gas • Solid and Gas

  26. - Changes of State Changes Between Solid and Liquid • The change in state from a solid to a liquid is called melting. • What is needed for silver or any other solid to melt? • Energy! • As the molecules receive more energy, what do they start to do (more of)? • They move more freely. • This causes the substance itself to expand, but the particles do NOT expand. They spread farther apart!!!

  27. - Changes of State Changes Between Solid and Liquid • The change of state from liquid to solid is called freezing.

  28. Changes Between Liquid and Gas • The change of state from liquid to gas is called vaporization. • Vaporization can occur by boiling(vaporization below the liquid surface and on the liquid surface) or by evaporation(vaporization ONLY on the liquid surface). See Figure 11 on page 51 of your textbook. • The change of state from gas to liquid is called condensation. Example- Water condensing on a mirror from a hot shower.

  29. Learning Objectives • Explain what happens to a substance during the changes between… • Solid and Liquid • Liquid and Gas • Solid and Gas

  30. Changes Between Solid and Gas • The change of state from solid to gas is called sublimation. Examples- Dry ice & Iodine. • Solid Gas

  31. What happens to a solid metal when heated (but not so much that the solid metal would melt)? • The metal would not change at all. • The metal would expand. • The metal would shrink. • The metal would break.

  32. What caused the solid metal to expand from the previous question? • The cold caused the particles to come closer together. • The heat caused the particles to come closer together. • The cold caused the particles to spread slightly further apart. • The heat caused the particles to spread slightly further apart.

  33. Why does the liquid inside a thermometer move up when the temperature increases? • The liquid doesn’t move up the thermometer. • The liquid expands and can only go up the tube because the particles are starting to move faster and spread further apart. • The liquid would shrink an can only go down the tube because the particles are slowing down and getting closer together. • The liquid wouldn’t rise up the tube, it would just get warmer.

  34. A change where a solid becomes a liquid is called • freezing • melting • sublimation • vaporization • constipation

  35. The change from a liquid to a gas is called ______________, while a change from a gas to a liquid is called ____________. • Vaporization; condensation • Vaporization; freezing • Condensation; vaporization • Condensation; sublimation

  36. If a substance melts at 20oC and boils at 180oC, then at what temperature would the substance be a gas? • 200oC • 150oC • 20oC • 10oC

  37. Some Glade air freshener plug-ins contain a solid substance that gives off sweet smelling vapors. This is an example of • freezing • melting • vaporization • sublimation

  38. Phase Change Diagram for Water Experiment • Goal: Observe and explain temperature changes as ice water is heated to past boiling. • Hypothesis: Sketch what you believe a temperature-time graph would look like for heating ice water to boiling. • Procedure • *Observe the graph when the ice is melting, when the water is boiling, and the water temperature between melting and boiling.* • Results • Sketch the graph in your lab notebook with the x-axis and y-axis properly labeled. • There should be 3 parts to the graph: one flat line, one slanted line, and another flat line. • Label the parts of the graph as boiling, melting, or liquid. • Add another slanted line where the solid phase would show up on the graph and label it “solid”, then do the same thing for where the “gas” phase would be on the graph. Think about where these lines should be based upon the pattern you observed during the experiment!

  39. Analysis • Discussion/Conclusions (in complete sentences) • What happened to the water particles as the experiment progressed (moved forward)? • Using evidence from your experiment, why didn’t the temperature go up when the ice was melting and the water was boiling even though heat was being added? Hint- Determine if melting and boiling are endo- or exothermic changes first, and then use the definition to arrive at your answer.

  40. Segment B: melting point of ice; segment D: boiling point of water Interpreting Data: What does the temperature value for segment B represent? For segment D? - Changes of State Temperature and Changes of State

  41. Water molecules in segment E have more thermal energy because they are at a higher temperature. Inferring: In which segment, A or E, do the water molecules have more thermal energy? Explain your reasoning. - Changes of State Temperature and Changes of State

  42. Phase Change Review: By examining the data table below, determine at which temperature a solid melted. • 75oC • 210oC • 98oC • 134oC • 160 oC

  43. A state of matter with a definite shape and volume is a • liquid • solid • gas • All of the above

  44. Solids can be either _________ or ________. • Amorphous or powders. • Crystalline or amorphous. • Crystalline or small. • Chunks or powders.

  45. In which state of matter are the particles packed tightly together in “fixed” positions? • gas • liquid • solid • All of the above

  46. In which state of matter do the particles have the lowest amount of kinetic energy? • solid • liquid • gas • All of the above

  47. What state of matter is made up of the particles that are the furthest apart? • solids • liquids • gases • All of the above

  48. Particles of a liquid • are free to move in a container but remain in close contact with one another. • have no viscosity. • decrease in volume with increasing temperature. • All of the above are true.

  49. The resistance of a liquid to flowing is its • Pressure • Surface tension • Viscosity • gravity

  50. Some insects can “walk” on top of a sample of water. This is likely due to water’s • Pressure. • Surface tension. • Volume. • Viscosity.