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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  1. Table of Contents Chapter Preview 12.1 What Is a Vertebrate? 12.2 Fishes 12.3 Amphibians 12.4 Reptiles 12.5 Birds 12.6 Mammals • 12.1 Structure and Function of Vertebrates • 12.2 Fishes • 12.3 Amphibians • 12.4 Reptiles • 12.5 Birds • 12.6 Mammals

  2. Chapter Preview Questions • 1. A group of similar cells that perform a specific function is called a(n) • a. organ. • b. tissue. • c. organ system. • d. organism.

  3. Chapter Preview Questions • 1. A group of similar cells that perform a specific function is called a(n) • a. organ. • b. tissue. • c. organ system. • d. organism.

  4. Chapter Preview Questions • 2. The major cause of extinction of species is • a. a change in the environment. • b. new diseases. • c. over-killing by predators. • d. competition with other species.

  5. Chapter Preview Questions • 2. The major cause of extinction of species is • a. a change in the environment. • b. new diseases. • c. over-killing by predators. • d. competition with other species.

  6. Chapter Preview Questions • 3. The term for the extinction of many organisms at the same time is • a. Permian extinction. • b. Pangaea. • c. Cambrian explosion. • d. mass extinction.

  7. Chapter Preview Questions • 3. The term for the extinction of many organisms at the same time is • a. Permian extinction. • b. Pangaea. • c. Cambrian explosion. • d. mass extinction.

  8. Chapter Preview Questions • 4. Most animals reproduce • a. sexually only. • b. asexually only. • c. with alternating sexual and asexual stages. • d. by binary fission.

  9. Chapter Preview Questions • 4. Most animals reproduce • a. sexually only. • b. asexually only. • c. with alternating sexual and asexual stages. • d. by binary fission.

  10. Two friends are looking at fishes in an aquarium. One friend refers to the fishes as animals. The other friend argues that • fishes aren’t animals because they don’t have four legs. Which friend is correct? Explain your answer. How does the structure of vertebrates help them to function?

  11. Greek Word Origins amphibian An animal that spends part of its life cycle on land and part in water amphibios living a double life

  12. Greek Word Origins chordate An animal that has a flexible rod that supports the animalís back chordé string, cord

  13. Greek Word Origins endotherm An animal that produces enough heat within its body to control its body temperature therme heat

  14. Apply It! 1. How does the meaning of amphibian relate to the Greek word from which it comes? An animal that lives for part of its life on land and part in water is living a double life. 2. Can you think of an English word besides chordate that might come from the Greek word chordé? Sample: cord 3. In the list of key terms on the next page, find another term besides endotherm that might come from the Greek word therme. Then look up the meaning of the key term and check how its meaning relates to the meaning of endotherm. An ectotherm is an animal whose body does not produce much internal heat. An endotherm, in contrast, is an animal whose body does produce internal heat to maintain its temperature.

  15. End of Chapter Preview

  16. Section 1: What Is a Vertebrate? • What are the characteristics of chordates and vertebrates? • How have scientists been able to infer the relationships of major groups of vertebrates? • How do vertebrates differ in the way they control body temperature?

  17. Ancient Jawless Fish • Look backward in time, into an ocean 530 million years ago. There you see a strange-looking creature—a jawless fish—that is about as long as your index finger.

  18. Characteristics of Chordates • This lancelet shows the characteristics of a chordate: a notochord, a nerve cord down its back, and gill slits.

  19. Evolution of Vertebrates • The pattern of vertebrate evolution is branching.

  20. Links on Vertebrates • Click the SciLinks button for links on vertebrates.

  21. Vertebrates • Click the Video button to watch a movie about vertebrates.

  22. End of Section: What Is a Vertebrate?

  23. Section 2: Fishes • What are the characteristics of chordates and vertebrates? • How have scientists been able to infer the relationships of major groups of vertebrates? • How do vertebrates differ in the way they control body temperature?

  24. Characteristics of Fishes • Most fishes obtain oxygen through gills. Water flows into the mouth of the fish and then over its gills. Oxygen moves into the blood and is delivered to the cells of the fish.

  25. Bony Fishes • A bony fish has jaws, scales, a pocket on each side of the head that holds the gills, and a skeleton made of hard bones.

  26. End of Section: Fishes

  27. Section 3: Amphibians • What is the life cycle of an amphibian? • How are adult amphibians adapted to living on land?

  28. What Is an Amphibian? • During its metamorphosis from tadpole to adult, a frog’s body changes dramatically.

  29. Living on Land • Many adult amphibians have lungs, a heart with three chambers, and a double-loop circulatory system.

  30. Respiration and Circulation Activity • Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about respiration and circulation.

  31. More on The Frog Life Cycle • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity aboutthe frog life cycle.

  32. End of Section: Amphibians

  33. Section 4: Reptiles • What adaptations allow reptiles to live on land? • What are the characteristics of each of the three main groups of reptiles? • What environmental change may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs?

  34. Adaptations for Life on Land • The membranes and shell of an amniotic egg protect the developing embryo.

  35. The Sex Ratio of Newly Hatched Alligators • The temperature of the developing eggs of the American alligator affects the sex ratio of the young. (Sex ratio is the number of females compared with the number of males.)

  36. 29.4ºC Reading Graphs: At which temperature(s) did only females hatch? The Sex Ratio of Newly Hatched Alligators

  37. The warmer the incubation temperature, the greater the proportion of males. Drawing Conclusions: What effect does the temperature of developing eggs have on the sex of the baby alligators? The Sex Ratio of Newly Hatched Alligators

  38. According to the graph, out of the 50 alligators that were incubated at 31.7ºC, about 40 (or 80%) were males. So 80% of 100 eggs (80) could be expected to hatch as males. Calculating: If 100 eggs developed at 31.7ºC, about how many of the young would be male? The Sex Ratio of Newly Hatched Alligators

  39. Extinct Reptiles–The Dinosaurs • Climate change may have caused the extinction of dinosaurs and other organisms.

  40. More on Reptiles • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activity about reptiles.

  41. Interpreting Fossils • Click the Video button to watch a movie aboutinterpreting fossils.

  42. End of Section: Reptiles

  43. Section 5: Birds • What are the main characteristics of birds?

  44. Characteristics of Birds • The bodies of most birds have adaptations for flight.

  45. Characteristics of Birds • Air sacs and a four-chambered heart help birds obtain oxygen and move it to their cells.

  46. Characteristics of Birds • Birds have four-chambered hearts and double-loop circulatory systems that efficiently move oxygen to their cells.

  47. Respiration and Circulation Activity • Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about respiration and circulation.

  48. Characteristics of Birds • Some birds like this hawk have a crop and a gizzard. The crop stores food, and the gizzard crushes food.

  49. End of Section: Birds

  50. Section 6: Mammals • What characteristics do all mammals share? • What are the main groups of mammals and how do they differ in their reproduction?