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National Highlights from the Title I, Part D, Program

Nicholas Read, NDTAC Technical Assistance Team, AIR

what is title i part d
What is Title I, Part D?
  • Title I, Part D, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), also called The Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent or At-Risk (N or D), provides financial assistance to educational programs for youth in State-operated institutions or community day programs and to local school districts' programs involving collaboration with locally-operated correctional facilities.
  • Title I, Part D, is administered by the Office of Student Achievement and School Accountability Programs, under the federal Department of Education’s Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE). John McLaughlin is the Federal Program Manager for the Title I, Part D, Neglected, Delinquent or At-Risk Program.
goals of title i part d
Goals of Title I, Part D

The goals of Title I, Part D, are to:

  • improve educational services for children and youth who are N or D so they have the opportunity to meet challenging State academic content and achievement standards;
  • provide them with services to successfully transition from institutions to further schooling and/or employment; and
  • prevent at-risk youth from dropping out of school, and provide dropouts and children and youth returning from correctional facilities with a support system to ensure their continued education.
how does title i part d work
How Does Title I, Part D, Work?
  • State agency programs (Subpart 1). ED allocates funds to State educational agencies (SEAs) based roughly on the number of children and youth in State-operated institutions. The SEA then makes subgrants to each eligible State agency (SA) based on either (1) its proportionate share of the State’s adjusted enrollment count of Part D-eligible youth or (2) agencies/programs with the highest need.
  • Local agency programs (Subpart 2). ED allocates additional funds to SEAs based on annual counts of children and youth in locally-operated delinquent institutions and adult correctional facilities. The SEA has the option of awarding subgrants to eligible local educational agencies (LEAs) by formula or through a discretionary grant process.
responsibilities under title i part d
Responsibilities Under Title I, Part D

With Title I, Part D, funds come certain requirements and responsibilities on behalf of the State agencies and districts that receive the funds. These agencies are required to:

  • meet the educational needs of neglected, delinquent, and at-risk children and youth, and assist in the transition of these students from correctional facilities to locally operated programs;
  • ensure that these students have the same opportunities to achieve as if they were in local schools in the State;
  • evaluate the program and disaggregate data on participation by gender, race, ethnicity, and age, not less than once every three years.
key components of title i part d
Key Components of Title I, Part D
  • Academic/Vocational Supports
  • Behavior Management and Support
  • Family Engagement
  • Transition, Reentry, and Aftercare
about ndtac
  • Funded by the U.S. Department of Education (ED)
  • Operated by the American Institutes for Research (AIR)
  • Our mission:
    • Develop a uniform evaluation model for State Education Agency (SEA) Title I, Part D, programs
    • Provide technical assistance (TA) to States in order to increase their capacity for data collection and their ability to use that data to improve educational programming for N & D youth
    • Serve as a facilitator between different organizations, agencies, and interest groups that work with youth in neglected and delinquent facilities
supplemental academic supports
Supplemental Academic Supports
  • Too many youth who are incarcerated have such low academic skills that they:
    • Cannot comprehend the reading assignments in their coursework or text they encounter in their out-of-school reading
    • Are up to four years behind their peers in acquiring mathematics skills
    • Are at high risk for dropping out of school and increased risk of recidivism
    • Are ill-prepared for success in entry-level job training programs or entry-level college courses
supplemental educational services in state agency facilities programs
Supplemental Educational Services in State Agency Facilities/Programs


(a) USES—

(1) IN GENERAL—A State agency shall use funds received under this subpart only for programs and projects that…

…(B) concentrate on providing participants with the knowledge and skills needed to make a successful transition to secondary school completion, vocational or technical training, further education, or employment.

(2) PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS—Such programs and projects…

…(B) shall be designed to support educational services that—

(i) …are provided to children and youth identified by the State agency as failing, or most at-risk of failing, to meet the State's challenging academic content standards and student academic achievement standards;

(ii) supplement and improve the quality of the educational services provided to such children and youth by the State agency; and

(iii) afford such children and youth an opportunity to meet challenging State academic achievement standards;

supplemental educational services in state agency facilities programs1
Supplemental Educational Services in State Agency Facilities/Programs


Funds provided to local educational agencies under this subpart may be used, as appropriate, for…

…(4) special programs to meet the unique academic needs of participating children and youth, including vocational and technical education, special education, career counseling, curriculum-based youth entrepreneurship education, and assistance in securing student loans or grants for postsecondary education; and

virginia s literacy coaching program
Virginia’s Literacy Coaching Program
  • Literacy Coaches:
    • Administer standardized testing
    • Disseminate results of testing to teachers and parents
    • Collaborate with content area teachers to identify instructional strategies to meet students’ educational needs
    • Provide targeted assistance
    • Develop and deliver professional development
    • Assist in transition planning
    • Function as point-of-contact between the education program and a student’s parents or guardians
virginia s literacy coaching program1
Virginia’s Literacy Coaching Program
  • Advantages:
    • Promotes literacy across the content areas
    • Innovative instructional strategies utilized
    • Actively demonstrates 21st Century Skills:
      • Collaboration
      • Communication
      • Critical thinking
      • Problemsolving
impact of virginia s literacy coaching program1
Impact of Virginia’s Literacy Coaching Program

Increased By Up To One Grade Level

impact of virginia s literacy coaching program2
Impact of Virginia’s Literacy Coaching Program

Increased By More Than One Grade Level

virginia s literacy coaching examples of unique programs
Virginia’s Literacy Coaching: Examples of Unique Programs
  • Teaching students who are parents or expectant parents how to read to their children
  • Book groups
  • Poetry Slams
  • Making PSAs
ndtac academic support resources
NDTAC Academic Support Resources
  • Providing Individually Tailored Academic and Behavioral Support Services for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

  • Making It Count: Strategies for Improving Mathematics Instruction for Students in Short-Term Facilities
  • Adolescent Literacy Guide: Meeting the Literacy Needs of Students in Juvenile Justice Facilities
behavior management support
Behavior Management & Support
  • Many students struggle with emotional and behavioral problems that may lead them to act out in ways that school administrators and teachers may not understand or be prepared to respond to effectively.
  • Punitive discipline practices negatively affect the academic performance and achievement by removing students from needed classroom I
  • Students regularly disciplined, especially those suspended and expelled, are at greater risk of juvenile justice system involvement.
    • There are high rates of students with behavior issues in juvenile justice classrooms – such settings are equally under-prepared/equipped to address
behavior management support1
Behavior Management & Support
  • Investing in an evidence-based behavior management system is one way that educational programs across settings are addressing problem student behaviors in proactive, supportive ways that encourage student success.
  • Within juvenile justice and other residential settings specifically, administrators can use supplemental funding, like Federal Title I, Part D, funding, to adopt behavioral support systems that assist students with behavior problems and help them to achieve academically at levels comparable to their non-delinquent peers.
behavior management support2
Behavior Management & Support

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

“PBIS” is a research-based systems approach designed to enhance the capacity of schools to…

  • effectively educate all students, including students with challenging social behaviors
  • adopt & sustain the use of effective instructional practices

(Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai et al., 1999; Sugai & Horner, 1994, 1999)


A focus on:

  • School as unit of implementation
  • Connecting social & academic achievement
  • Team-based leadership
  • Investments in capacity building
  • Conceptually sound guiding principles
  • Data-based decision-making
  • Sustainability of effective practices
positive behavioral interventions and support pbis in secure care
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support (PBIS) in Secure Care
  • Implementing PBIS in secure care facilities is very similar to that in public schools. The differences involve convincing administrators and staff of a positive approach to addressing behavior.
  • Arguments for PBIS in secure care settings:
    • Effective and efficient alternative to harsh, inconsistent, and ineffective disciplinary methods in public schools
    • Discipline in many juvenile justice facilities is often harsh and harmful
      • punishment mentality,
      • inconsistency among staff
    • Decisions about disciplinary not linked to data on youth behavior
  • Features of secure care settings that affect implementation:
    • 24-hour day
    • Multiple programs in a facility
    • Multidisciplinary staff
    • Primary focus is security
    • Education personnel not in charge of discipline
    • Decisions re: youth behavior aren't data-driven
pbis in secure care
PBIS in Secure Care

The key elements of PBIS are the same in secure care settings:

  • Clear expectations and procedures for teaching
  • Continuum of procedures for:
    • encouraging expected behavior
    • discouraging misbehavior
  • Procedures for:
    • on-going monitoring and evaluation
    • data-based decision making
    • sustaining implementation fidelity

And within the scope of the implementation effort, these points are critical:

  • A consistent set of rules for youth behavior
  • Consistent routines, especially for problem areas
  • Alter physical arrangements associated with problem areas
impact of pbis in secure care illinois and iowa
Impact of PBIS in Secure Care: Illinois and Iowa
  • PBIS has also shown promise in addressing problem student behaviors in secure care settings:
  • Illinois Youth Center-Harrisburg:
    • Both major and minor behavior incidents decreased markedly over a 5-year period after adopting PBIS in 2002 (Nelson et al., 2008).
    • Similarly, the Iowa Juvenile Home saw reductions in the number of problem behaviors requiring disciplinary action following the implementation of PBIS in 2001 (Nelson et al., 2008).
      • The same facility had a 73 percent reduction in the use of restraint and seclusion following PBIS implementation (Nelson et al., 2008).
ndtac behavior management and support resources
NDTAC Behavior Management and Support Resources
  • Providing Individually Tailored Academic and Behavioral Support Services for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

  • Improving Conditions for Learning for Youth Who Are Neglected or Delinquent
  • Supporting Student Achievement Through Sound Behavior Management Practices in Schools and Juvenile Justice Facilities: A Spotlight on Positive Behavioral Interventions and SupportsComing soon!
family engagement matters
Family Engagement Matters!

Research has shown that there are many benefits when families are involved in their child’s education:

  • Students are more willing to learn, and they feel better about themselves. They get better grades and attend school more regularly. They are more likely to graduate from grade school or high school and are more likely to continue their education.
  • Students are less likely to use drugs and alcohol, and they have fewer instances of violent behavior and suspensions.
  • Youth feel supported, and there is greater support for schools.
three tier model to engage families
Three-Tier Model to Engage Families

Intensive: 3rd Tier

Selective: 2nd Tier

Universal: 1st Tier

Special efforts for a few families

Additional supports

to boost some families

Opportunities afforded

to all families

stadium view school minneapolis public schools hennepin county juvenile detention center
Stadium View SchoolMinneapolis Public SchoolsHennepin County Juvenile Detention Center
  • Short term facility
  • Mostly students of color, predominantly Black
  • Students detained on serious charges
  • 12 staff: 8 teachers, a transition specialist, a principal and a life skills coach
  • Serve also students in the adult facility
  • Nationally accredited
minnesota s stadium view school
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Connecting With Families

  • Sunday visitation
  • “Meet and Greet” with community partners
  • Classroom “Meet and Greet” with follow-up phone call home
  • Parent Council monthly meetings
  • Calendar
minnesota s stadium view school1
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Connecting With Families

  • Transition Specialist as point person
  • Student referral
  • Lobby display
  • Facility supervisors
  • Community partners
minnesota s stadium view school2
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Facilitating Parent Visits

  • Community Showcase (celebrate student success)
  • Court support
  • Freedom School Showcase
  • Evening student debates
  • IEP meetings
  • Parent Council meetings
minnesota s stadium view school3
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Tips for Engaging Families

  • Facilitate transportation, childcare stipends, meeting dinners
  • Home visits
  • Connect and facilitate community to support student and family
  • Build trust through relationships
minnesota s stadium view school4
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Building Relationships

  • Each interaction with a student and family member is with the highest level of respect and sincerity
  • Respect and care are foundation of student/staff interaction
  • Staff are required to provide educational and social-emotional support
  • No judgment
minnesota s stadium view school5
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Effective Communication

  • Staff regularly reflects on our commitment to our vision and mission
  • Student Support Team meets weekly to discuss students’ academic and social-emotional well being
  • Staff has on-going communication training
  • Transition Specialist as point person
minnesota s stadium view school6
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Sharing Information

  • IEP meetings include teachers, support staff, student and family members
  • Letters and phone calls announce events and meetings
  • 15 day academic report
minnesota s stadium view school7
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Providing Opportunities for Visits

  • Juvenile justice, community and school systems work together
  • Freedom School, debates, visiting authors and guests
  • Work to support engagement between community partners and families
  • When appropriate, include parents and JDC staff in professional development (we learn together)
minnesota s stadium view school8
Minnesota’s Stadium View School

Ensuring Staff Meet Needs

  • Weekly Student Support Team meetings
  • Staff attend IEP meetings
  • Over 100 hours each year of professional development
  • Staff, student surveys, observations
  • Community partners as critical friends
  • Pacer Center/Governor’s Council on Developmental Disabilities
ndtac family engagement resources
NDTAC Family Engagement Resources
  • Working With Families of Children in the Juvenile Justice and Corrections Systems: A Guide for Education Program Leaders, Principals, and Building Administrators
  • Facility Toolkit for Engaging Families in Their Child's Education at a Juvenile Justice Facility
  • Family Guide to Getting Involved in Your Child's Education at a Juvenile Justice Facility
transition reentry and aftercare
Transition, Reentry, and Aftercare

Transition has been defined as “a coordinated set of activities for the youth, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes successful movement from the community to a correctional program setting, and from a correctional program setting to post-incarceration


This definition identifies three elements of successful transition:

  • It is coordinated.
  • It is an outcome-oriented process.
  • It promotes successful movement between the facility and the community.
transition reentry and aftercare1
Transition, Reentry, and Aftercare



Each State agency shall reserve not less than 15 percent and not more than 30 percent of the amount such agency receives under this subpart for any fiscal year to support—

(1) projects that facilitate the transition of children and youth from State-operated institutions to schools served by local educational agencies; or

(2) the successful reentry of youth offenders, who are age 20 or younger and have received a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent, into postsecondary education, or vocational and technical training programs, through strategies designed to expose the youth to, and prepare the youth for, postsecondary education, or vocational and technical training programs…

washington s education advocates1
Washington’s Education Advocates

Project Goal: Reduce Recidivism

  • Program Objectives
    • Expand support and case management
    • Assist youth in overcoming barriers
    • Improve school coordination
washington s education advocates2
Washington’s Education Advocates

Collaboration/Joint Planning Between ESDs and Local School Districts

  • Conducted a local needs assessment
  • Selected target group
  • Developed referral criteria and plan
  • Determined how to integrate with other school-based efforts
washington s education advocates3
Washington’s Education Advocates

Case Management Flow Chart

  • Intake/needs assessment
    • Identify Low – Moderate – High Risk Indicators
    • Establish case management re-entry plan
  • Daily Case Management (Tier 1)
    • Until each goal is initially addressed
  • Weekly Case Management (Tier 2)
    • Monitoring, support, and skill building
  • Quarterly Case Management (Tier 3)
    • Monitoring, support, and skill building
washington s education advocates4
Washington’s Education Advocates


  • Schools denying entry
  • Families/youth not understanding the school “systems”
    • Enrollment
    • Transferring credits/course work
  • Lack of support systems
    • Generation gangs, poverty, homelessness, addiction, mental illness and learning disabilities, grief and trauma
    • Parental/family
washington s education advocates5
Washington’s Education Advocates

Addressing the Challenges

  • Help youth navigate the system
  • Collaborate with others in the system
  • Provide transitional support
  • Communicate and network with:
    • Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice
    • Community Agencies and others
  • Educate youth about their options
  • Help youth advocate for themselves
impact of washington s education advocates
Impact of Washington’s Education Advocates

Detention & JRA Program OutcomesThe EA Project began mid-year 2009. Charts are of outcome data compiled over the course of the program by Education Advocates.

impact of washington s education advocates1
Impact of Washington’s Education Advocates

Detention & JRA Program OutcomesThe EA Project began mid-year 2009. Charts are of outcome data compiled over the course of the program by Education Advocates.

impact of washington s education advocates2
Impact of Washington’s Education Advocates

ARRA & Middle/High School Outcomes 2010-11

ndtac transition resources
NDTAC Transition Resources
  • Transition Toolkit 2.0: Meeting the Educational Needs of Youth Exposed to the Juvenile Justice System
  • The Mentoring Toolkit: Resources for Developing Programs for Incarcerated Youth
contact us
Contact Us
  • Nicholas ReadState Technical Assistance Liaisonnread@air.org202-403-5354