Reciprocal Teaching An Approach to Reading Comprehension
What is Reciprocal Teaching? Palincsar (1986) describes the concept of reciprocal teaching: "Definition: Reciprocal teaching refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.
Four Strategies of Proficient Readers • Questioning • To identify what is important • Clarifying • To simplify words or phrases • Summarizing • To tell about most important details • Predicting • To identify what may happen next
Guess What? • You ALREADY know how to do this! “What happened?” • Summarizing “Naw!?!” • Questioning “So…” • Clarifying “I bet…” • Predicting
Questioning • Questioning what we read lets us test ourselves to see if we really understand. • Questioning helps us figure out what’s important and what’s not. • Questioning allows us to dig deeper into the text and challenge our thinking. • Questioning helps us discover how to find the correct answer.
Types of Questions • Two types of questions: • On-the-surface: these questions have answers that can be pointed out in the text • Under-the-surface: these questions have implied, inferred or speculated answers
On-the-Surface Questions These questions will have obvious answers, or answers that are easily identified in the text
Try it! • Follow along as we practice making on-the-surface questions from the textbook. • Who? • What? • When? • Where?
Under-the-Surface Questions These questions will NOT have obvious answers, or answers that are easily identified in the text
Try it! • Follow along as we practice making under-the-surface questions from the textbook. • Why? • How? • Would? • Could? • Should?
Clarifying • Clarifying helps us recognize the words we don’t know. • Clarifying allows us to use context clues to determine the meaning of new words. • Clarifying helps us think critically about words or ideas. • Clarifying enhances our understanding. • Clarifying connects new information to prior knowledge.
What do we Clarify? • Words that impede understanding of text need to be clarified • There are several ways to clarify: • Context clues • Ask someone • Look it up
Try it! • Follow along as we practice clarifying words or phrases from the textbook. • Words/phrases you don’t know • Words/phrases your classmates may not know
Summarizing • Summarizing means we can restate the text in words or visualize the text in pictures. • Summarizing in words is a shortened version of a text, made up of only the most important ideas. A good summary doesnot include unimportant details. • Summarizing with pictures gives us ownership of the text- the images and scenes we create are ours alone. • Summarizing helps us understand the sequence and organization of the text. • Summarizing lets us look at the text from the author’s point of view.
How do we Summarize? • Summarizing can be done in two ways: • Quick-draw- these drawings are very personal, and therefore need to be explained • Leave-in/Leave-out strategy
Try it! • Follow along as we practice making a summary from the textbook. • Leave In? • Leave Out? • Summary (restate what was left in) • Squeeze
Predicting • Predicting lets us use what we already know by tapping into our prior knowledge- things we have seen or heard about. • Predicting helps us compare what we already know with what we will learn. • Predicting gives us an important reason for reading or listening- we want to see if our predictions come true. • Predicting can help us become a better reader and listener.
How do we Predict? • This looks different in narrative vs. expository texts • Narrative texts require students to ask, “What will happen next?” • Expository texts require students to ask, “What will we learn next?”
Try it! • Follow along as we practice making predictions from the textbook. • What am I going to learn next? • Evidence
Time to Teach! • Read the text silently • Listen as a classmate re-reads the text aloud • Take 2 minutes to do your strategy • Share Out • Rotate cards • Read the nextSection silently
What am I teaching?!? • Questioning • On-the-surface/Under-the-surface • Clarifying • words or phrases we don’t know • Summarizing • Leave-in/Leave-out • Predicting • What are we going to learn next? Evidence?